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COIN OF TRYPHON, KING OF SYRIA.
TRYPHON, SA'LVIUS, one of the leaders of the revolted slaves in Sicily, had been accustomed to play on the flute in the orgies of the women, and was supposed to have a knowledge of divination, for which reason he was elected king by the slaves in B. c. 103. He displayed considerable abilities, and in a short time collected an army of 20,000 foot and 2000 horse, with which he laid siege to Morgan-tina, a strong city in Sicily. The propraetor P. Licinius Nerva obtained possession of the camp of the slaves by surprise, bat was afterwards defeated by Salvius. After this victory Salvius assumed all the pomp of royalty. He administered justice in the toga praetexta, surrounded himself with lictors, and took the surname of Tryphon, probably because it had been borne by Diodotus, the usurper of the Syrian throne. He chose the strong fortress of Triocala as the seat of his new kingdom ; and his power was still further strengthened by the submission of Athenion, who had been elected leader of the slaves in the western part of the island. The insurrection had now assumed such a formidable aspect, that the senate sent the propraetor L. Licinius Lucullus into Sicily in the following year (b. c. 102) with a force of 17,000 men, the greater part of which were regular Roman or Italian troops. Tryphon, however, did not hesitate to meet this force in the open field. Athenion, whom he had first thrown into prison through jealousy, but had afterwards released, fought under him with the greatest bravery, and was severely wounded in the battle. The slaves were defeated with great slaughter, and Tryphon was obliged to take refuge in Triocala. But Lucullus, whether from incapacity or treachery, failed in taking the place, and returned to Rome without effecting any thing more. Lucullus was succeeded by C. Servilius ; and on the death of Tryphon, about the same time, the kingdom of the slaves devolved upon Athenion, who was not subdued till b. c. 101. (Dio&.Eclog. ex lib. XXXVI. p. 533, foil. ed. Wess.; Flor. iii. 19.)
TRYPHONFNUS, CLAU'DIUS, a Roman jurist, wrote under the united reign of Septimius Severus, and his son Antoninus Caracalla (Dig. 48. tit. 19. s, 39) ; and he survived Severus, who died a. d. 212, for he speaks of "Imperator noster cum Divo Severo patre suo " (Dig. 27. tit. 1. s. 44). There is extant a rescript of Antoninus (a. d. 213) addressed to Claudius Tryphoninus, which declares that a legacy left by Cornelia Salvia to the " uni-versitas" of the Jews in Antioch could not be sued for (Cod. 1. tit. 9. s. 1). It is probable that this rescript was addressed to Tryphoninus in the capacity of Advocatus Fisci. Tryphoninus (Dig. 23.
tit. 3. s. 78. § 4) speaks of giving his opinion in the " auditorium," which may be that of Papinian. Tryphoninus appears to have studied Cicero's writings: he quotes the oration Pro Cluentio (Dig. 48. tit. 19. s. 39). Tryphoninus was in the Consilium of Severus at the same time with Messius and Papinian (Dig. 49. tit. 14. s. 50). He was the author of twenty-one Libri Disputationum, from which there are seventy-nine excerpts in the Digest; and he also wrote notes on Cervidius Scaevola. [G. L.]
TUBERO, AE'LIUS. 1. P. aelius tubero, was elected plebeian aedile b. c. 202, but resigned his office, together with his colleague L. Laetorius, because there had been some fault in the auspices at their election. He was praetor the following year, b.c. 201, when he obtained Sicily as his province. In b.c. 189 he was one of the ten commissioners sent into Asia after the conquest of Antiochus ; and in b. c. 177 he was again elected praetor. (Liv. xxx. 39, 40, xxxvii. 55, xli. 8.)
2. Q. aelius tubero, tribune of the plebs b.c. 194, proposed a plebiscitum, in accordance with a decree of the senate, for founding two Latin colonies in southern Italy ; one among the Bruttii, and the other in the territory of Thurii. He was appointed one of the three commissioners for the foundation of the latter colony. (Liv. xxxiv. 53, xxxv. 9.)
3. Q. aelius tubero, the son-in-law of L. Aemilius Paulus, served under the latter in his war against Perseus, king of Macedonia. After Perseus had been taken prisoner, he was committed by Aemilius to the custody of Tubero. This Tubero, like the rest of his family, was so poor that he had not an ounce of silver plate, till his father-in-law gave him five pounds of plate from the spoils of the Macedonian monarch. (Liv. xlv. 7, 8 ; Val. Max. iv. 4. § 9 ; Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 11; Plut. Aemil. Paul. 28.)
5. L. aelius tubero, an intimate friend of Cicero. He was a relation and a schoolfellow of the orator, had served with him in the Marsic war, and had afterwards served under his brother Quintus as legate in Asia. It is uncertain in what way he was related to Cicero. The Scholiast on the oration for Ligarius says (pp. 415, 417, ed. Orelli) that Tubero married the soror of Cicero. We know that Cicero had not a sister; but the brother of the orator's father mav have had a
daughter, who was married to Tubero ; and hence we may understand soror to signify in this passage, as it frequently does, a first cousin, and not a sister, (Drumann, Gesckichte Roms, vol. vi. p. 273.) On the breaking out of the civil war, Tubero, who had espoused the Pompeian party, received from the senate the province of Africa ; but as Atius Varus and Q. Ligarius, who likewise belonged to the aristocratical party, would not surrender it to him, he passed over to Pompey in Greece. He was afterwards 'pardoned by Caesar and returned with his son Quintus to Rome. (Cic. pro Lig. 4, 7, 8, ad Q. Fr. i. 1. § 3, pro Plane. 41.) Tubero cultivated literature and philosophy. He wrote a history (Cic. ad Q. Fr. I. c.), and the philosopher Aenesidemus dedicated to him his work on the sceptical philosophy of Pyrrhon. (Phot. Cod. 212.)