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TRYPHON.

of Athene, Venus, assuming the form of an old Trojan woman, discloses to Helen the trick of the Greeks, and informs her that Menelaus is among the heroes inside. Intending to bring about their detection, she goes to the temple, and within the hearing of the warriors talks of their wives in Greece. Stifled sighs and tears escape from the heroes. Anticltis is on the point of betraying the whole scheme by speaking aloud, but Ulysses claps his hands over his mouth, and holds them so tight that he smothers him. Athene appears and sends Helen home again. This scene is the only part of the poem which has much merit. A somewhat lengthy, though otherwise tolerabty good description of the scenes which ensued upon the sack and destruction of the city, is followed by a meagre notice of some of the chief special incidents.

The poem of Tryphiodorus was first published in connection with those of Quintus Smyrnaeus and Coluthus. A separate edition, accompanied by a Latin translation in verse, was published by F. Jamot (Paris, 1557). Frischlin and Rhodomann published a critical edition with Latin versions in prose and metre. (Frankfurt, 1588.) An improved edition of Triphiodorus was published by J. Merrick (Oxford, 1741), in which several omissions were supplied from fresh MSS. Merrick also published an English translation and a treatise on Tryphio­ dorus (Oxford, 1739). The edition of Bandini, (Florence 1765) contained a collection of the various readings of two new MSS. He did little for the text however. His critical apparatus was applied to that object by Thomas Northmore in his edition of the poet (Cambridge 1791, London, 1804). A splendid folio edition was printed by Bodoni at Parma in 1796. An equally imposing edition, and one more correct, was published by Tauchnitz (Leipzig 1808) under the superintend­ ence of G. H. Schaefer. A critical edition with the notes of Merrick, Schaefer, and others, and some of his own, was published by F. A. Wernicke (Leipzig 1819). Besides the Latin and English translations, there is one in German by B. Thiersch. (Suidas, s. v.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 526 ; Schb'll, Gescli. der Griechischen Litteratur, vol. iii. p. 73, &c.) [C. P. M.]

TRYPHON (Tpfyxw/), literary. 1. Of Alex­andria, the son of Ammonius, a grammarian and poet, lived before and during the reign of Augustus (Suid. s. v.). A long list of his works, in almost every department of grammar, is given by Suidas, and an account of several of them, which exist in MS., will be found in Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 351, comp. pp. 165, 192, 319, 321, 381, and vol. i. p. 526).

2. The son of Hermes, the author of an epigram in the Greek Anthology, on the sudden death of the harp-player Terpes, who was killed in the Scias of Sparta, by having a fig thrown into his open mouth. There is a passage of Suidas (s. v. t\vkv (UeAi Kal 7rz/i|aTw), which makes it all but certain that the Terpes of the epigram is no other than the celebrated Terpander, and that the epi­gram refers to a traditional account of his death, in which, as in similar stories of the end of other poets, even the manner of his decease was made symbolical of the sweetness of his compositions. Respecting Tryphon himself we have no further information. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 451 ; Jacobs, A nth. Graec. vol. iii. p. 157, vol. x. p. 296, vol. xiii. p. 963.)

TRYPHON.

3. See diodorus tryphon, Vol. I. p. 1017, b.

4. Tryphon the Jew, whose name appears in Justin's well-known dialogue, hardly falls within the limits of this work. All the particulars re­ specting him which are necessary for understanding Jerome, and they are very few, will be found in the dialogue itself. (See also Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 62.) [P. S.]

TRYPHON (T/>t5<J>ow), artists. 1. An eminent engraver of precious stones, whose beryl, engraved with a figure of the sea-nymph Galene, is men­tioned in an epigram by Addaeus (No. 6, Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 242), who appears to have lived in the time of Alexander the Great and his successors. There is a very celebrated gem by him in the col­lection of the Duke of Marlborough, representing the reconciliation of Eros and Psyche (Bracci, ii. 114), of which there are several copies; one of the best of these is in the Museum at Naples (Vis-conti, Qp. Var. vol. ii. p. 192, No. 114). There is also a carnelian, engraved with a figure of Eros riding on a lion, bearing the inscription TPT*flN, in the Museum of the Hague (De Jonge, Notice, p. 148, No. 16) ; and another gem, mentioned by Raspe (Catal. de Tassie, No. 15454), with the in­scription TPT4>HN 6HO16L His name also occurs on another gem, in the Museum of the Hague (De Jonge, p. 151, No. 12 ; Caylus, Recueil, v. pi. liii. No. 5, p. 148) ; but in this case the inscription is certainly a modern forgery. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, pp. 157, 158.)

2. An architect, of Alexandria, who flourished in the time of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and distin­guished himself in the defence of Apollonia, by the invention of an ingenious plan of countermining. (Vitruv. x. 22. s. 16. § 10, Schneider.) [P. S.]

TRYPHON (Tpfyuv). 1. A surgeon, who lived at Rome shortly before the time of Celsus, that is, probably in the first century b. c. (Gels. De Med. vi. 5, vii. 1. pp. 117, 137.) As Celsus calls him " Tryphon pater" there would seem to have been another medical man of the same name, who lived somewhat later. This is perhaps also implied by Galen when he speaks of Tpv(f><*)v 6 apxcuos (De Compos. Medicam. sec. log. vii. 3. vol. xii. p. 843), who may perhaps be the same person as the " Tryphon pater" of Celsus, and who is certainly the surgeon quoted by Scribonius Largus (De Compos Medicam. c. 69. § 201. p. 227. Cf. Gal. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. iv. 13. vol. xiii. p. 745) and apparently his tutor (ibid. c. xliv. § 375. p. 222), and perhaps also the physician mentioned by Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. Chron.

1. 4. p. 323). Tryphon, the native of Gortyna in Crete, who is quoted by Galen (De Compos. Medi­cam. sec. log. ix. 2. vol. xiii. pp. 246, 253) is also perhaps the same person ; but the writer on gym­nastics, mentioned by Galen (Ad Tlirasyb. de, Medic, et Gymnast, c. 47. vol. v. p. 898) probably lived earlier.

2. The physician introduced by Plutarch as one of the speakers in his Symposiaca (iii. 1. § 2, 3 ;

2. § 1, 2), if he was a real personage, lived in the first century after Christ. [W. A. G.]

TRYPHON, DIO'DOTUS (AiSSoros 6 Tpt-<£>coz>), a-usurper of the throne of Syria during the reign of Demetrius II. Nicator. After the death of Alexander Balas in b. c. 146, Tryphon first set up Antiochus, the infant son of Balas, as a pretender against Demetrius; but in b.c. 142 he murdered Antiochus and reigned as king himself.

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