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1164

TORQUATUS.

ims, accepted his challenge, slew his adversary, and bore the bloody spoils in triumph to his father. Death was his reward. The consul would not overlook this breach of discipline: and the un­happy youth was executed by the lictor in pre­sence of the assembled army. This severe sentence rendered Torquatus an object of detestation among the Roman youths as long as he lived ; and the recollection of his severity was preserved in after ages by the expression Manliana imperia. Two writers relate that the young Manlius was exe­cuted by his father's orders in a war with the Gauls (Sail. Cat. 52 ; Dionys. viii. 79) ; but as we do not read of Torquatus having the com­mand in any war against the Gauls, it is probable that he is confounded by these writers with No. 6, as Zonaras has done, who says (ix. 8), that No. 6 caused his son to be executed. Torquatus is not mentioned again by Livy ; but according to the Fasti he was dictator for the third time in b. c. 320. (Liv. vii. 4, 5,10,19, 26—28, viii. 3— 12; Cic. de Off. iii. 31, de Fin. i. 7, ii. 19, 22, Tusc. iv. 22; Val. Max. vi. 9. § 1, i. 7. § 3, ii. 7. § 6 ; Gell. i. 13 ; Dion Cass. Fragm. 34, p. 16, Reim.; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. III. 28.)

2. T. manlius torquatus, the son of the preceding, was slain by his father's order, as is related above.

3. T. manlius torquatus, probably a son of No. 2, was consul b. c. 299 with M. Fulvius Paetinus. He was appointed to conduct the war against the Etruscans ; but he had scarcely entered Etruria, when he was thrown from his horse, and died in consequence on the third day after. (Liv. x. 9, 11.)

4. L. manlius torquatus, probably a brother of No, 3, legatus of the propraetor Scipio in the great campaign of b. c. 295. (Liv. x. 26.)

5. A. manlius T. f. T. n. torquatus at­tic us, son of No. 3, was censor b. c. 247 with A. Atilius Calatinus, consul for the first time in 244 with C. Sempronius Blaesus, and for the second time in 241 with Q. Lutatius Cerco. In his second consulship Torquatus defeated the Fa-lisci, who had taken up arms and obtained a tri-.innph in consequence. (Fasti Capit.; Eutrop. ii. 28; Oros. iv. 11 ; comp. Liv. Ep. 19 ; Polyb. i. 65.) Pliny (H. N. vii. 53. s. 54) speaks of the sudden death of a consular A. Manlius Torquatus, who may have been either the subject of this notice or No. 9.

6. T. manlius T. p. T. n. torquatus, son of No. 3 and brother of No. 5, was consul for the first time in b. c. 235 with C. Atilius Bulbus, in which year he conquered the Sardinians, and ob­tained in consequence a triumph. His first consul­ship was memorable from the circumstance that the temple of Janus was closed in this year, in conse­quence of the Romans enjoying universal peace, which is said not to have occurred before since the reign of Numa Pompilius. (Eutrop. iii. 3; Liv. xxiii. 34 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 38 ; Oros. iv. 12; Liv. i. 19; Plut. Num. 20.) In b.c. 231 Torquatus was elected censor with Q. Fulvius Flaccus, but was obliged to resign through some unfavourable symp­tom in the auspices. (Fasti Capit) Ins.c. 224 he was consul a second time with Q. Fulvius Flaccus, and along with his colleagues carried on the war with success against the Gauls in the north of Italy. These consuls were the first Roman generals who crossed the Po. (Polyb. ii. 31 ;

TORQUATUS.

Liv. Epit. 20 ; Oros. iv. 13.) This Torquatus possessed the hereditary sternness and severity of his family (priscae ac nimis durae severitatis, Liv. xxii. 60). We accordingly find him reso­lutely opposing in the senate the ransom of those Romans who had been taken prisoners at the fatal battle of Cannae (b.c. 216). In the following year (b. c. 217) he was sent into Sardinia in con­sequence of the illness of the praetor Q. Mucius, who had the government of the province ; and while in the island he carried on the war with success against the Carthaginians and the Sardi­nians, who had revolted at the instigation of the former people. In b. c. 212 he was a candidate for the dignity of pontifex maximus, but was de­feated by P. Licinius Crassus, who was greatly his junior, and was then suing for the curule aedileship. The people wished to choose Tor­quatus consul for the year 210, but he refused to accept the honour. Two years afterwards (b. c. 208) he was appointed dictator for the purpose of holding the comitia and presiding at the games which had been vowed by the praetor M. Aemi-lius. (Liv. xxii. 60, xxiii. 34, 40, 41, xxv. 5, xxvi. 22, xxvii. 33.) He died in b. c. 202. (Liv. xxx. 39.)

7. A. manlius torquatus, known only from the Fasti Capitolini as the son of No. 6 and the father of No. 8.

8. T. manlius A. f. T. n. torquatus, the son of No. 7, was consul b. c. 165 with Cn. Octa-vius. He inherited the severity of his ancestors ; of-which an instance is related in the condemnation of his son, who had been adopted by D. Junius Silanus, the particulars of which are related else­where. [silanus, No. 3.] He appears to be the same person as the T. Manlius Torquatus, who was elected pontiff in B. c. 170, and who was sent on an embassy to Egypt about b. c. 164 to mediate between the two Ptolemies, Philometor and Euer-getes. On his return Torquatus spoke in the senate in favour of the younger brother, Euergetes. (Liv. xliii. 11 ; Polyb. xxxi. 18, xxxii. 1.)

9. A. manlius A. f. T. n. torquatus, son of No. 7 and brother of No. 8, was praetor b. c. 167, when he obtained Sardinia, but was unable to go into his province, as he was retained by the senate to investigate some capital offences. He was consul in b. c. 164 with Q. Cassius Longinus (Liv. xlv. 16 ; Fasti Capit.). Respecting his death, see No. 5.

10. A. manlius torquatus, was propraetor of Africa, perhaps about B. c. 70, where Planeius, whom Cicero defended at a later period, served under him. (Cic. pro Plane. 11.)

11. A. manlius torquatus, probably son of No. 10, was praetor in b. c. 52, when he presided at the trial of Milo for bribery. On the breaking out of the civil war he espoused the side of Pom-pey, and after the defeat of the latter retired to Athens, where he was living in.exile in b.c. 45. He was an intimate friend of Cicero, who addressed four letters to him (ad Fam. vi. 1—4) while he was in exile. (Ascon. in Cic. Mil. pp. 40, 54, ed. Orelli; Cic. ad Att. v. 1, 4, 21, vi. 1, vii. 14, ix. 8, de Fin. ii. 22.)

12. T. manlius T. f. torquatus, the first cousin (frater patruelis) and father-in-law of No. 10, bore witness on behalf of Planeius in b. c. 54. He is spoken of by Cicero as an orator who came from Molo's school. (Cic, pro Planv. 11, Brut, 70.)

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