The Ancient Library

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On this page: Tleson – Tmolus – Togonius Gallus – Tolmides – Tolumnius – Tolynus – Tomyris – Tongilius



joint evidence of the three vases is decisive in favour of the form Tlenpolemos. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 61, 2d ed.) [P. S.]

TLESON, son of Nearchus, a maker of painted vases, whose name is inscribed, in the following manner, on several vases found at Canino, Tosca-nella, Corneto, and elsewhere :


His vases are all in the form of a patera mounted on a tall foot, and of an antique style of workman­ ship. Raoul-Rochette regards the addition of the name of the artist's father, on these vases, as a novelty borrowed from the Greek vase-makers, and as one of the proofs that the manufacture was not of Etruscan origin. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, pp. 61, 62, 2d ed.) [P. S.]

TMOLUS (T>cDAos). 1. The god of Mount Tmolus in Lydia, is described as the husband of Pluto (or Omphale) and father of Tantalus, and said to have decided the musical contest between Apollo and Pan. (Apollod. ii. 6. § 3 ; Schol. ad Eurip. Or. 5 ; Ov. Met. xi. 157.)

2. A son of Proteus, was killed by Heracles. (Tzetz. ad Lye. 124.) [L. S.]

TOGONIUS GALLUS, a senator, proposed in A. d. 32 that Tiberius should choose twenty senators, who should accompany him as a body­guard as often as he went into the senate, a propo­sition which only made Togonius ridiculous, as it was well known that Tiberius intended never to return to Rome. (The. Ann. vi. 2 ; Dion Cass. Iviii. 17.)

TOLMIDES (ToAAu'Srys), an Athenian general, who in b. c. 455 persuaded the people to send him with a fleet to cruize round the Peloponnesus, arid ravage the enemy's country. If we may believe Diodorus, 1000 men were voted to him, to be se­lected by himself; but he first prevailed on 3000 to join him as volunteers, by assuring them that he meant at any rate to name them for the service, and, having thus secured these, he proceeded to act on the vote of the assembly, and chose 1000 more. In his expedition he burnt the Lacedae­monian arsenal at Gythium, took Chalcis, a town of the Corinthians, and disembarking on the Si-cyonian territory, defeated the troops that came against him. According to Diodorus, he had pre­viously captured Methone, which, however, by the arrival of Spartan succours, he was soon obliged to relinquish. He also took Naupactus from the Ozo-lian Locrians, and settled there the Messenians, who had been besieged and recently conquered by the Lacedaemonians at Ithome. After the return of Tolmides to Athens, we hear of his leading Athenian settlers (itXypovxoi) to Euboea and Naxos; and in b. c. 447, when the Boeotian exiles had returned and seized Chaeroneia and Orchomenus, he proposed that he should, be sent at once with a body of volunteers to quell the rising. Pericles objected in vain to the expedition as hasty and ill-timed, and Tolmides, having carried his point, marched into Boeotia with 1000 Athenians and some allied troops, and took Chaeroneia, where he left a garrison. But near Coroneia he fell in with a force consisting of the Boeotian exiles who had gathered together at Orchomenus, some Lo­crians and Euboean exiles, and others of the same party. A battle ensued, in which the Athenians were utterly defeated, and Tolmides himself was skin. (Thucyd. i, 103, 108, 113 j Diod. xi. 84,


85, xii. 6 ; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 38 ; Pans. i. 27 ; Plut. Ages. 19, Per. 16, 18.) [E. E.]

TOLUMNIUS, LAR, king of the Veientes, to whom Fidenae revolted in b. c. 438, and at whose instigation the inhabitants of Fidenae slew the four Roman ambassadors, who had been sent to Fidenae to inquire into the reasons of their recent conduct. The names of these ambassadors, were C. Fulcinius, Cloelius, or Cluilius Tullus, Sp. Aritius, and L. Roscius; and statues of all four were placed on the Rostra at Rome, where they con­tinued till a late time (Liv. iv. 17 ; Cic. Phil. ix. 2 ; Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 6. s. 11). In the war which followed, Tolumnius was slain in single combat by Cornelius Cossus, who dedicated his spoils in the temple of Jupiter Feretrius, the second of the three instances in which the spolia opima were won. (Liv. iv. 18, 19,) [Cossus, p. 865, b.]

TOLYNUS (TjAwos), of Megara, is supposed to have been a comic poet of the Old Comedy, before Cratinus, and about contemporary with Ecphantides, on the authority of a passage in the Etymologicum Magnum, which seems to ascribe to him the invention of the metre afterwards called the Cratinean. (Etym. Mag. p. 761. 47, ToXvi/ziov rb KaXovpevov Kpariveiov fj.irpov, k. r. A.) It appears, however, very probable that ToAweioj>, in this passage, is only a false reading for TeAATji/eioy, and that the reference is to the lyric poet and musician Tellen. (Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Grace. pp. 38, 39.) [P.S.]

TOMYRIS (T6fJivpis)9 a queen of the Massa- getae. According to Herodotus, when Cyrus the Great was contemplating the reduction of that nation (b. c. 529), Tomyris was a widow, and the Persian king sent an embassy to her with an offer of marriage. This she indignantly rejected, and Cyrus then prepared to cross the river Araxes, and to invade her territory. Tomyris warned him by a herald not to be guilty of such injustice, but added that, if he were bent upon it, she would not dispute with him the passage of the river, but would either advance three days' journey into his territory, or allow him to come as far into her's, that they might decide their quarrel by a fair battle. Cyrus chose the latter alternative, and by a stratagem surprised and captured Spargapises, the son of Tomyris. The queen demanded his restoration, with the threat that Cyrus, as he loved blood, should have plenty of it if he refused her. The Persian would not release his prisoner, who slew himself through grief, and a battle ensued, in which Cyrus was defeated and slain. Tomyris is described by Herodotus as roaming about the field after her victory in search of her enemy's body, on finding which she fastened his head in a leathern bag full of blood, in accordance with her threat. (Herod, i. 205—214.) [E. E.]

TONGILIUS. 1. A dissolute youth, was one of Catiline's crew. (Cic. in Cat. ii. 2.)

2. A person ridiculed by Juvenal (vii. 130). TORA'NIUS. [thoranius.] TORISMOND. [thorismond.] TORQUA'TA, JU'NIA, a Vestal virgin, and the sister of C. Junius Silanus, interceded on behalf of her brother, who was condemned of trea­son in a. d. 22, and obtained from Tiberius a com­mutation of his punishment. Her name occurs in inscriptions. (Tac. Ann. iii. 70, with the note of Lipsius ; Spon, Miscett. p, 150.) [silanus, No. 10.]

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