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hand, the passage extracted by Gellius relates entirely to the etymology of the word Suculae. Asconius Pedianus (in Milon. § 38) refers to the fourth book of a life of Cicero by Tiro, and he was perhaps the compiler of a collection of his jests mentioned by both Quintilian (vi. 3. § 2), and Macrobius (ii. 1). But we owe him a debt of gratitude which never can be adequately acknowledged if it be true, as many believe, that he was the chief agent in bringing together and arranging the works of his illustrious patron, and in preserving his correspondence from being dispersed and lost. (See Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 17, ad Att. xvi. 5.)
It is well known that the Romans under the empire were acquainted with a species of shorthand writing so as to be able to take down fully and correctly the words of public speakers, however rapid their enunciation (Martial. Ep. xiv. 202 ; Manil. Astron. iv. 197 ; Senec. Epist. 90). From a notice in the Eusebian chronicle, taken in combination with some observations in the Origines of Jsidorus (i. 21), it has been inferred that Tiro was the inventor of the art, and although the expressions employed certainly do not warrant such a conclusion, yet abbreviations of this description, which are by no means uncommon in MSS. from the sixth century downwards, have very generally been designated by the learned as Notae Tironianae. The whole subject is very fully discussed in the Palaeo-graphia Critica of Kopp, Pars Prima, 4to. Manh. 1817, p. 18, foil.
(See Cic. ad Ait. iv. 6, vi. 7, vii. 2, 3, 5, xiii. 7, ad Fam. lib. xvi., the whole contents of this book being addressed to Tiro ; Plut. Cic. 41, 49 ; Lersch, die Sprachpliilosopliie der Alten^ 2te Theil, p. 46 ; Engelbronner, Disputatio hist. Grit, de M. Tullio Tirone, 8vo. Amst. 1804 ; Lion, Tironiana, in Seebode's ArcJiiv. fur PMlologie, 1824 ; Dru-mann, GescMckte Roms, vol. vi. p. 409.) [W.R.]
TIRYNS (Tipvvs\ according to Pausanias (ii. 25. § 7), a son of Argos, from whom the ancient city of Tiryns derived its name ; according to Stephanus of Byzantium it derived its name from Tiryns, a daughter of Halus and sister of Amphi- tryon. [L. S.J
TISAGORAS (Ti<ra7o'pas), an artist who wrought in iron, and dedicated at Delphi a group made by himself in that material, representing the contest of Hercules with the hydra. Pausanias mentions this group as an admirable specimen of that most difficult kind of statuary in metal, but as to who Tisagoras was, he confesses himself entirely ignorant. (Paus. x. 18. § 5. s. 6.) [P. S.]
TISAMENUS (Tiarauevos). 1. A son of Orestes and Hermione, was king of Argos, but was deprived of his kingdom when the Heracleidae invaded Peloponnesus. (Apollod. ii. 8. § 2 ; Paus. ii. 18. § 5, 38. § 1, vii. 6. §2.) He was slain in a battle against the Heracleidae (Apollod. ii. 8. § 3), and his tomb was afterwards shown at Helice, whence at one time his remains were removed to Sparta by command of an oracle. (Paus. vii. 1. § 3.)
TISAMENUS (Ttcra^pos). 1. An Elean vol. in.
soothsayer, of the family of the Clytiadae, who seem to have been a branch of the lamidae, if the received reading in Herodotus (ix. 33) is sound. (Comp. Philostr. Vit. Apoll. v. 25 ; Cic. de Dir, i. 41.) According to the story told by Herodotus, Tisamenus had been assured by the Delphic oracle that he should be successful in five great conflicts. Supposing this to be a promise of distinction as an athlete, he devoted himself to gymnastic exercises, and on one occasion was very near winning the prize for the pentathlum at Olympia. The Spartans, however, understanding the oracle to refer, not to gymnastic, but to military victories, made great offers to Tisamenus to induce him to take with their kings the joint-command of their armies. This he refused to do on any terms short of receiving the full franchise of their city, whereupon the Spartans at first indignantly broke off the negotiation, but afterwards professed their readiness to yield the point. Tisamenus then rising in his demands, stipulated for the same privilege on behalf of his brother Hegias, and this also was granted him. He was present with the Spartans at the battle of Plataea, in B. c. 379, which, according to Herodotus, was the first of the .five conflicts referred to by the oracle. The second was with the Argives and Tegeans at Tegea ; the third, with all the Arcadians except the Manti-neans, at Dipaea, in the Maenalian territory (both between b. c. 479 and 465) ; the fourth was the third Messenian War (b. c. 465—455) ; and the last was the battle of Tanagra, with the Athenians and their allies, in b.c. 457. (Herod, ix. 33—36 ; MUller, Dor. bk. i. ch. 9. §§ 9—11.)
2. A descendant apparently of the above, who took part in the plot of cinadon, and was put to death for it, in b. c. 397. (Xen. Hell. iii. 3. § 11.) [E. E.J
TI SAN DER (TiWSpos), a statuary of unknown country, who flourished at the end of the fifth century b. c., and made a large number of the statues in the group which the Lacedaemonians dedicated at Delphi out of the spoils of the victory of Aegospotami. (Paus. x. 9. § 4. s. 9.) [P. S.]
TPSIAS, a Greek statuary, of whom nothing is known beyond the mention of his name in Pliny's list of those artists who made, in bronze, athletas et armatos et venatores sacrificantesque. (Plin. //. A^ xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 34.) [P. S.j
TISFCRATES. 1. An eminent Greek statuary, of the school of Lysippus, to whose works those of Tisicrates so nearly approached, that many of them were scarcely to be distinguished from the works of the master. Such were his Theban Old Man, his King Demetrius, and his statue of Peucestes, who saved the life of Alexander the Great. The words added by Pliny to his mention of the last work, diynus tanta gloria, show the nigh estimation in which the artist was held. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 8.) Pliny introduces the name of Tisicrates in such a way as to cause a doubt, whether he was the disciple of Lysippus himself or of his son Euthycrates ; but we think he means the former. The artist's date may be fixed at about 01. 120, b. c. 300. He appeal's to have excelled in equestrian groups. Pliny also mentions a biga of his, to which the artist Piston added the figure of a woman (L c. § 32). There is another passage of Pliny, in which the name of Tisicrates occurs in the common editions (L c. § 12); where the reading Tisicratis rests on no other an-