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TIRIDATES.

faith with him, and married the lady himself; and, the royal word having been again pledged to him, and again broken in the same way, with respect to Atossa, the youngest of the princesses, Tiribazus was be}rond measure exasperated, and incited Dareius, the son of Artaxerxes and his heir-elect, to join him in a plot against the king's life. The design was betrayed to Artaxerxes by an eunuch, and the conspirators, when they came to execute their purpose, found themselves foiled. Tiribazus offered a desperate resistance to the guards who endeavoured to arrest him, and was slain at length by a javelin hurled at him from a distance. (Pint. Artax. 27—29.) [aspasia, No. 2; dareius.] [E. E.]

TIRIDATES or TERIDA'TES (T^SaV^), a common Eastern name, more particularly among the Parthians.

1. A beautiful eunuch, at whose death Arta­xerxes was inconsolable. (Aelian, V. II. ii. 1.)

2. The guardian of the royal treasures at Per-sepolis, wrote to Alexander to inform him that the inhabitants wished to seize the treasures, and to beg him to march with all speed to the city. In consequence of this information Tiridates was left by Alexander in the same post which he had oc­cupied under Dareius. He was afterwards made satrap of the Gedrosii and Arimaspi by Alex­ander. (Curt. v. 5, 6 ; Diod. xvii. 69, 81.)

3. The second king of Parthia. [arsaces II.]

4. One of the royal race of the Arsacidae, was proclaimed king of Parthia in place of Phraates IV. (Arsaces XV.), whose cruelties had produced a rebellion of his subjects and led to his expulsion from his kingdom. Phraates, however, was restored to the throne soon afterwards, and Tiridates fled for refuge to Augustus, who refused to give him up to Phraates. This happened about b. c. 23. (Dion Cass. li. 18, liii. 33 ; Justin, xlii. 5 j Hor. Carm. i. 26.) [arsaces XV.]

5. Probably a grandson of Phraates IV., was set up by Tiberius in a. d. 35 as a claimant to the Parthian throne in opposition to Artabanus III. (Arsaces XIX.) The history of his war with Artabanus III. and of his short reign is related elsewhere. [arsaces XIX.]

6. tiridates I., king of Armenia, and brother of Vologeses I. (Arsaces XXIII.), king of Parthia. He was made king of Armenia by his brother, but was driven out of the kingdom by Corbulo, the Roman general, and finally received the Armenian r.rown from Nero at Rome in A. d. 63, as is more fully related in the life of Vologeses I. [arsaces XXIII.]

7. tiridates II., king of Armenia, was the son of the Armenian king Vologeses. He was in the power of the Romans, from whom he escaped, and fled for refuge to Vologeses V, (Arsaces XXX.), king of Parthia. The Parthians, however, sur­rendered him to Caracalla, when the latter de­manded him in a. d. 215, and backed his demand with an army. Tiridates must, however, have again escaped from captivity, for we find him at a later time on the Armenian throne. Macrinus, who was unwilling to prosecute the war against him, which had been commenced by Caracalla, concluded a peace with him, and sent him the diadem. (Dion Cass. Ixxvii. 19, 21, Ixxviii. 27, with the notes of Reimarus.)

8. tiridates III., king of Armenia, the son of Chosroes. His father was assassinated by the

TIRO.

emissaries of Sapor I., king of Persia, who made Armenia a province of the Persian empire, and placed a certain Artavasdes on the throne, about a. d. 258. Tiridates, who was then an infant, was saved by the fidelity of a servant and carried to the Romans, by whom he was educated with great care. (Moses Choren. ii. 71, 73, 74.*) After he had lived under the protection of the Roman emperors for nearly thirty years, he was restored to the throne of his ancestors at the commence­ment of the reign of Diocletian. Although Tiri­dates displayed the greatest energy and courage, he was unable long to retain possession of his king­dom against the overwhelming power of the Persian monarchy. He was expelled from Armenia by Narses, and was obliged to take refuge a second time at the court of the Roman emperors. This led to a war between Rome and Persia, in which Narses was completely defeated and obliged to submit to a humiliating peace, a. d. 298. One of the conditions of this peace was the restoration of Tiridates to the Armenian throne. [sassanidae, p. 717, a.] (Moses Choren. lib. ii.)

M. TIRO, a centurion, expelled from the army by Caesar, b. c. 47. (Hirt. B. Afr. 54.)

TIPvO, API'NIUS, a man of praetorian rank, placed himself at the head of the fleet when it revolted from Vitellius to Vespasian in a. d. 69 but by the severe contributions which he levied in the municipia ho did more harm than good to the cause of Vespasian. (Tac. Hist. iii. 57, 76.)

TIRO, CAELE'STRIUS, an intimate friend of the younger Pliny. They had served together as military tribunes, as quaestors and as praetors, and were in the habit of frequently residing in each other's houses. (Plin. Ep. vii. 16.) Four of Pliny's letters are addressed to him (Ep. i. 12, vi. 1, 22, ix. 5).

TIRO, NUMI'SIUS. [NuMisius, No. 5.] TIRO, M. TU'LLIUS, the freedman and pupil of Cicero, to whom he was an object of the most devoted friendship and tender affection, appears to have been a man of very amiable disposition, and highly cultivated intellect. He was not only the amanuensis of the orator, and his assistant in literary labour, but was himself an author of no mean reputation, and notices of several works from his pen have been preserved by ancient writers. Thus we are told by A. Gellius (xiii. 9, comp. xii. 3) that he composed several books De Usu atque Ratione Linguae Latinae, and also De variis atqiiQ promiscuis Quaestionibus. It is added that on the most important of these he bestowed the Greek designation Traj/Se/crcu " tanquam omne rerum atque doctrmarum genus continentes," an inter­pretation of the title altogether rejected by Lersch, who believes the piece in question to have been a grammatical treatise on the adverb, which was termed TravSeKTys by the stoics (see Charis. p. 175, ed. Putsch.), and supports this view by a quotation from Charisius (p. 186): " Novissime Tiro in Pandecte non recte ait dici adiicitque quod sua coeperit aetate id adverbium." On the other

* Zonaras speaks (xii. 21) of Tiridates as king of Armenia at this time, and says that after he fled to the Romans, his children joined the Per­sians ; but this is clearly a mistake, for the subse­quent narrative shows that the account of the Armenian historian is correct. See Gibbon, c. x., note 134.

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