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would probably make on the mind of our own age. There was undoubtedly great power and beauty in the compositions of Timotheus, and if they could be restored, even as mere writings, and much more if they could be reproduced as they were publicly performed, they would certainly excite our admiration, whatever might be the judgment of calm criticism. The few fragments which have come down to us afford ample proof of this. Such a line, for instance, as that with which he led off his nome entitled Persae^


bears upon it the impress of the true poet. (Paus. viii. 50. § 3 ; Pint. Philop6em. 11.)

He composed, according to Stephanus of Byzan­tium (/. c.), eighteen books of citharoedic nomes, containing eight thousand verses, and TrpovS/Ata av\cav x'l^la"> according to the correction of Grono-vius, auAwj/ for #AAa>z/, and, perhaps too, for irpovo-fjiia we should read Trpooi/j,ia, but even so the mean­ing is not very clear, for we have no account of any flute-music by Timotheus : possibly there is some confusion between him and the flute-player of the same name, who lived in the time of Alexander the Great. Suidas gives a much fuller account of his works, and ascribes to him nineteen Masical Nomes, thirty- six Prooems, eight Diasceuae (<5u/-<r/c6ua£, which Meineke supposes to mean compo­sitions by other poets, which Timotheus recast and adapted to his own style of music, Hist. Grit. Com. Grace, p. 32), eighteen Dithyrambs, twenty-one Hymns, some Encomiums, and other works ; and, besides this general classification of his works, Suidas mentions the following special titles,

Probably, instead of Tlepcrcu $) NauTrA/os, we ought to read neptrat, Navn\os, as two distinct titles, for the NauriAos of Timotheus is quoted byAthenaeus (viii. p. 338) and by Eustathius (ad Od. v. p. 1538). The Ku/cAco^, which appears to have been one of the most celebrated of his Dithyrambs, has already been referred to. The few extant fragments of these poems are collected by Bergk, Poetae Lyrici Graeci, pp. 860 — 863, and by Kayser, Diatribe in Dithyrambum, pp. 96 — 120. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 747, vol. ii. p. 325 ; Miiller, Hist, of Lit. ofAnc. Greece, vol. ii. pp. 59 — 62 ; Ulrici, Gesch. d. Hellen. Dwhtkunst,\(A. ii. pp. 604 — 610; Bode, vol. ii. ; Bernhardy, Gcsch. d. Griech. Lilt. vol. ii. pp. 551 — 554 ; Kayser, /. c. ; Clinton, Fast. Hellen. vol. ii. s. aa. 398, 357).

3. A very distinguished flute-player of Thebes, concerning whom a few particulars are mentioned in Luciai^s dialogue Harmonides, in which Timo­theus is introduced as discoursing to his disciple Harmonides concerning the means of obtaining success in his art. We learn from Suidas that Timotheus flourished under Alexander the Great, on whom his music made so powerful an impression that once in the midst of a performance by Timo­theus, of an Orthian Nome to Athena, he started from his seat, and seized his arms. (Suid. s. vv. 'AAelavSpos, 5O/>#iaa>taTcoz', Tt/J.66eos.) We have a suspicion, notwithstanding the opinions of eminent scholars, that this Timotheus has been invented, through a series of confusions, out of the celebrated Milesian musician ; but it is impossible in such a work as this to discuss every complicated question of criticism which may present itself.

4. A philosopher, follower of Patron the Epi-


curean, is mentioned by Strabo among the distin­guished natives of Sinope (xii. p. 546 ; the words are Ti/noOeov t^v TlctTpiovcC).

5. Of Athens, the author of a biographical work, from which Diogenes Laertius (iii. 5, iv. 3, v. 1, vii. 1) quotes statements respecting Plato, Speu-sippus, Aristotle, and Zeno. Nothing is known of his age, unless these references be supposed to furnish any guide to it. Vossius is probably right in supposing him to be a different person from the Timotheus whose 'ApyoXitcd and the eleventh book of whose work on Rivers are quoted by Plutarch (deFluv. 18. 3), and also different from the writer to whom Eustathius (ad Dion. Perieg. 421) refers. (Vossius, deHiat. Graec. p. 507, ed. Westermann.)

6. A mythological writer, from whom Arnobiua (v. 5) quotes some statements respecting the Phrygian worship of the mother of the gods. (Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 506, ed. Westermann.)

7. Of Gaza, an eminent grammarian, in the time of the emperor Anabcas'.us, whose financial admi­nistration he is said to have attacked in a tragedy entitled Xpvffdpyvpos, of which no fragments are extant. He flourished therefore at the end of the fifth century of our era. He also wrote a poem in epic verse, and in four books, on the quadrupeds of India, Arabia, Egypt, and Libya, and on foreign and extraordinary birds and serpents. (Suid. s. v.; Tzetz. GUI. iv. 128.)

8. Bishop of Alexandria towards the close of the fourth century, was distinguished for his oppo­sition to Gregory of Nazianzus. He succeeded his brother Peter in the see of Alexandria in a. d. 379, and was present at the second general council at Constantinople, in the year 381, where he was one of the most active agents in the attack upon Gregory of Nazianzus, which caused the retire­ment of that great and good man, and in the ap­pointment of his successor Nectarius. He died in a. d. 385. He wrote a work on the lives of the fathers and monks, which is quoted by Sozomen (H. E. vi. 25), but is now lost. (Cave, Hist. Lift, s. a. 380, p. 274, ed. Basil.; Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. vol. x. pp. 138—293 ; Clinton, Fast. Rom. s. a. 381).

Notices of sojne other ecclesiastics and Christian writers of the name will be found in the works of Cave, Fabricius, and Schrockh. None of them seem to require specific mention, except a chrono- grapher, who is quoted by G. Cedrenus and Jo. Malala. (See Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 507, ed. Westermann.) [P. S.]

TIMOTHEUS (Ttjuc<0eos), a statuary and sculptor, whose country is not mentioned, but who evidently belonged to the later Attic school of the time of Scopas and Praxiteles ; for he was one of the artists who executed the bas-reliefs which adorned the frieze of the Mausoleum, about 01. 107, B. c. 352. Timotheus sculptured the south­ern side of the frieze, the other three sides being wrought by Scopas, Bryaxis, and Leochares. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 9 ; Vitruv. vii. Praef. § 12 ; scopas; Diet, of Antiq. s. v. Mausoleum, 2d ed.) This statement also shows the eminence of Timo­theus as an artist; for PLny expressly tells us that it was an undetermined question, which of the four artists had been the most successful (hodieque cer-tant manus). It must, however, be mentioned, that the Greek writers on the Mausoleum were not agreed as to the share of Timotheus in its execution, some ascribing to Praxiteles that side of

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