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1140

TIMOLEON.

sibly joined the other Greeks in asking assistance from Corinth, dreaded the arrival of Timoleon, and had therefore entered into secret negotiations with Hanno, the Carthaginian general, who had mean­time arrived in Sicily. The interference of Corinth with Sicilian affairs could not be pleasing to the Car­thaginians ; and Hanno accordingly sent a squadron of twenty ships to the coast of Italy, to watch the movements of Timoleon. The latter, however, contrived to outwit the Carthaginian commander at Rhegium, and crossed over in safety to Tauro-menium, where he was kindly received by Andro-maehus, the tyrant of the place, and by the Syra-cusan exiles. Meanwhile, Hicetas had been pro­secuting the war with success against Dionysius. At the head of a considerable force he had attacked Syracuse; and, after defeating Dionysius in a de­cisive battle, he had made himself master of the whole city, with the exception of the island cita­del, where he kept Dionysius closely besieged. Timoleon saw that it was necessary to act with promptitude ; for hardly any of the Sicilian Greeks could be expected to join him till he had won their confidence and commanded their respect. Accord­ingly, although he could collect only twelve hun­dred men, he marched at once to Adranum, the different parties in which had at the same time im­plored his assistance and that of Hicetas. The two generals reached the town almost at the same time; and in the battle which immediately ensued, Timoleon put Hicetas to flight, although he had nearly five times the number of men. Timoleon followed up his victory by marching against Syra­cuse, and before Hicetas could collect his troops, he succeeded in obtaining possession of two quar­ters of the city, Tyche and Epipolae. Syracuse was now in the hands of the three contending par­ties, Dionysius keeping the island citadel, Hicetas Neapolis and Achradina, and Timoleon the two other quarters. Such was the state of affairs to­wards the end of B. c. 344. The ensuing winter was spent in negotiations with the other Greek cities in Sicily, and Timoleon's recent success gained for him the adhesion of several important places, and among others that of Catana, of which Mamercus was tyrant. In the following spring (b. c. 343) Dionysius, despairing of success, surrendered the citadel to the Corinthian leader, on condition of his being allowed to depart in safety to Corinth. Hicetas, finding that he had to contend alone with Timoleon, first attempted to remove his rival by assassination, and, after the failure of this attempt, openly had recourse to the Carthaginians, and introduced Mago with his fleet and army into the port and city of Syracuse. Hicetas now seemed certain of success, for the Carthaginian force is said to have amounted to 50,000 men; but Timoleon did not despair, and showed himself quite equal to the emergency. He contrived to send a seasonable supply of provisions from Catana to the Corinthian garrison in the citadel at Syracuse ; and while Mago and Hicetas marched against Catana with the best part of their troops, Leon, the commander of the Corinthian garrison at Syracuse, made a sudden attack upon Achradina, and gained this important quarter of the city. This unexpected success raised the sus­picions of Mago, who, fearful of treachery, resolved to quit the island, and sailed away, with all his forces, to Carthage. Notwithstanding the defec­tion of his powerful ally, Hicetas still attempted to

TIMOLEON.

retain possession of the part of Syracuse that was still in his power, but he was unable to resist the attack of Timoleon, and was obliged to abandon the city, and return to Leontini.

Timoleon thus became the undisputed master of Syracuse. Although he might easily have made himself tyrant of the city, he resolved to show that neither he nor any other private person should become the irresponsible ruler ; and therefore one of his first acts was to call upon the people to de­stroy the citadel, which had been for so many years the seat and bulwark of the power of the tyrants. His next care was to repeople the city, which had become so deserted that whole streets were left without inhabitants, and grass grew in the market-place in sufficient quantity to feed the horses. He sent ambassadors to Corinth, to invite persons to come and settle at Syracuse, holding out to them as an inducement a division of lands. Corinth collected in Greece ten thousand colonists, who sailed to Syracuse ; and such numbers flocked to the city from different parts of Italy and Sicily, that the number of new inhabitants amounted to sixty thousand. Having thus collected a popula­tion, he proceeded to enact laws for their govern­ment. Of the details of these we are not informed. We only know that they were of a democratical nature, and that he appointed a chief magistrate, to be elected annually, who was called the Amphi-polus of the Olympian Zeus, and who gave his name to the Syracusan year. The historian adds that this office continued to be in existence in his time, that is, in the reign of Augustus (Diod. xvi. 70). The arrangement of the internal affairs of Syracuse engaged the principal attention of Ti­moleon for the next two or three years ; but during,, that time he did not neglect the great object to which he had now devoted his life, the expulsion of the tyrants from the cities. He com­pelled Leptines, who was tyrant of Apollonia and Engyum, to surrender his power, and sent him into exile at Corinth. He was not, however, so successful in an attack upon Leontini (Diod. xvi. 72), although Plutarch represents him as forcing Hicetas to demolish his strongholds, arid live among the Leontines as a private person (Tim. 24). But as these expeditions did not bring his troops much booty, and it was necessary to find both employment and rewards for his mercenaries, he sent the latter into the Carthaginian dominions in Sicily, where they reaped a rich harvest, and compelled many cities to desert the Carthaginian cause.

The Carthaginians did not need this provocation to engage in war against Timoleon. The rise of a new power at Syracuse, and the union of the Sicilian Greeks, could not but excite jealousy among the Carthaginians. They had been so ex­asperated against Mago for his cowardly conduct in leaving Sicily, that they would have crucified him if he had not put an end to his own life ; and they now resolved to send a force to Sicily suffi­ciently powerful to subdue the whole island. This formidable armament reached Lilybaeum in b. c. 339. It was under the command of Hasdrubal and Hamilcar, and is said to have consisted of 70,000 foot and 10,000 horse and war-chariots, with a fleet of 200 ships of war, and 1000 other vessels carrying a vast quantity of provisions and military stores. Such an overwhelming force struck the Greeks with consternation and dismay. So great

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