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TIMOLEOtf.

whom we know nothing further. (Find. Nem. 22, 145, with Dissen's Note). [P. S.]

TIMOLAUS (TyrfAaos), historical. 1. A Co­rinthian, who was bribed by Timocrates, when the latter was sent to Greece by Tithraustes to gain over as many of the Greeks as he could, to take the side of the Persians against Agesilaus. We find him soon after in a congress, held at Corinth, of the states that were leagued against Sparta. A speech of his on the occasion is reported by Xeno-phon. (Xen. Hellen. iii. 5. § 1, iv. 2. § 11 ; Paus. iii. 9. § 8.)

2. A Theban, who is denounced by Demosthenes (de Cor. p. 241, ed. Reiske) as a traitor to his country, because he took the Macedonian side. Polybius (xvii. 14. § 4) defends him from the charge. [C. P. M.]

TIMOLAUS, the son of Odenathus and Ze- nobia, the brother of Herennianus. Trebellius Pollio gives him a place in the list of the thirty tyrants [aureolus], but has preserved no parti­ culars with regard to his history, except that he displayed extraordinary zeal in the study of Latin literature. (Trebell. Poll. Trig. Tyrann. xxvii. ; comp. herennianus ; odenathus ; zeno- bia.) [W. R.]

TIMOLAUS (T^Aaos), literary. 1. A native of Cyzicus, who is mentioned as one of the disciples of Plato.

2. A Greek writer, a native of Larissa, and a disciple of Anaximenes of Lampsacus. He exercised his ingenuity by producing an Iliad, in which, each line of Homer was followed by one of his own ; thus : —

eflero

avcucros, 'A'/'5t irpolafyev

virb dovpi.

fj.apvaiJ.il/oi5 tire Tpwfflv TroAAas 8' l^QifjLOVs "Efcropos «/ Tra\dfj.7i(n

(Suidas, s.v. ; Eustath. Praef. in Od. p. 4.) Comp. pigres. [C. P. M.]

TIMOLEON (T^oAeW), the son of Timo-demus or Timaenetus and Demariste, belonged to one of the noblest families at Corinth, and gained at an early age among his fellow-citizens a reputa­tion for ability and courage. Corinth had long exercised great influence over the Greek cities in Sicily as the metropolis or mother-city of Syracuse. After the death of Dion, the most terrible dis­orders had prevailed throughout Sicily, and several men of enterprize and energy had succeeded in making themselves tyrants or supreme rulers in various places. Dionysius had again recovered his power in Syracuse. Hicetas had established him­self as tyrant at Leontini, and Andromachus, the father of the historian Timaeus, at Taurome-nium. The friends of Dion had taken refuge either with Hicetas or Andromachus, and the for­mer was making war against Dionysius under the pretext of restoring the exiles, but in reality in hopes of making himself master of Syracuse. Meantime, the Carthaginians prepared to take advantage of the distracted condition of Sicily ; and the fears of this invasion, as well as the hopes of restoring tianquillity to the island, led many of the Sicilians, and among them the Syracusan exiles, to send an embassy to Corinth to implore assist­ance (jb. c. 344). The Corinthians immediately resolved to comply with their request, and the

113.9

TIMOLEON.

unanimous voice of the people selected Timoleon as the person most competent to take the command in the proposed expedition. Such a proposal was, in itself, most acceptable to the bold and enter­prising spirit of Timoleon; but there was another reason which had rendered Corinth an unwelcome place of residence to him. His elder brother Ti-mophanes had commanded the Corinthian troops in a war against Argos with great success; and subsequently when the state expected another attack, he had the command of four hundred mer­cenaries entrusted to him. By their means, and supported by a powerful party in the state, he resolved to obtain the supreme power in Corinth, and make himself tyrant of the city. His brother Timoleon, who was a warm lover of liberty, dis­approved of his schemes, and endeavoured by ar­gument and persuasion to turn him from his pur­pose, but when he found Timophanes inflexible, he resolved to kill his brother rather than allow him to destroy the liberty of his state. The man­ner of Timophanes'' death is stated differently by the ancient writers. Diodorus says that Timoleon slew him with his open hand openly in the forum. Plutarch relates that Timoleon introduced the as­sassins into his brother's house, but turned his back while the deed was done; and Cornelius Nepos states that Timoleon was not even present at the murder, though it was perpetrated at his desire. (Diod. xvi. 65 ; Plut. Tim. 4 ; Corn. Nep. Tim. 1; Aristot. Pol. v. 5. § 9.) Plutarch further relates that Timophanes was murdered twenty years before the Sicilian ambassadors arrived at Corinth, during the whole of which time Timoleon lived in solitude, a prey to sorrow and remorse ; but as Xenophon in his Greek history makes no mention of the affair, which he would hardly have omitted, if it occurred in b. c. 364, we may follow in preference the narrative of Diodorus, who re­lates that Timoleon murdered his brother just before the arrival of the Sicilian ambassadors, and that at the very moment of their arrival the Co­rinthians had not come to any decision respecting Timoleon's act, some denouncing it as a wilful murder which should be punished according to the laws, others as a glorious deed of patriotism, for which he ought to be rewarded. The historian adds that the Corinthian senate avoided the diffi­culty of a decision by appointing him to the com­mand of the Sicilian expedition, with the singular provision, that if he conducted himself justly in the command, they would regard him as a tyran­nicide, and honour him accordingly; but if other­wise, they would punish him as a fratricide.

In whatever manner, and to whatever causes Timoleon owed his appointment, his extraordinary success more than justified the confidence which had been reposed in him. His history in Plutarch reads almost like a romance ; and yet of the main facts of the narrative, confirmed as they are by Diodorus and other authorities, we cannot entertain any reasonable doubt. Although the .Corinthians had readily assented to the requests of the Sicilians in the appointment of a commander, they were not prepared to make many sacrifices in their favour ; and accordingly it was only with ten triremes and seven hundred mercenaries that Timoleon sailed from Corinth to repel the Carthaginians, and re­store order to the Sicilian cities. It was not with­out difficulty that Timoleon could even reach Sicily. Hicetas, the tyrant of Leontini, who had osten

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