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TIMAGENIDAS.

Controv. 34 ; L. Senec. de Ira, iii. 23, Ep. 91.) Plutarch also tells us (De Adulatore et Amico, c. 27, p. 68, b), that Timagenes lost the friendship of Augustus by an imprudent use of his tongue.

By putting together the accounts of Suidas and the Senecas, we obtain the following particulars respecting the life of Timagenes. He was a native of Alexandria, from which place he was carried as a prisoner to Rome, where he was first employed as a slave in menial offices, but being liberated by Faustus Sulla, the son of the dictator, he opened a school of rhetoric, in which he taught with great reputation and success. (Comp. Hor. Ep. i. 19.15.) His fame gained him the friendship of many dis­tinguished men, and among others of the emperor Augustus, who induced him to write a history of his exploits. But having offended Augustus by sarcastic remarks upon his family, he was forbidden the palace; whereupon he burnt his historical works, gave up his rhetorical school, and retired from Rome to the house of his friend Asinius Pollio at Tusculum. After he had discontinued writing a long while, he resumed his pen (Quintil. x. 1), and composed those historical works upon which his fame was founded. How long he resided at Tusculum we do not know, nor the reason for which he quitted this retreat, but he afterwards went to the East, and died at Dabanum in Meso­potamia. It is probable that it was from the place of his death that he was called the Syrian by the author of the treatise de Fluviis (c. 6). The works of Timagenes mentioned by ancient writers are, 1. IlepiTrAovy. (Suidas, s. v. Ti/j.ay€vr)s.) It is pro­bably from this work that Strabo quotes (xv. p. 711). 2. Tlepl fineriXiwv, appears to have contained a history of Alexander the Great and his successors. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Mi\vat; Curt. ix. 5. § 21; Joseph. c. Apion. ii. 6 ; Plut. Pomp. c. 49). 3. On the Gauls (Plut. I. c.; Strab. iv. p. 188 ; Amm. Marc, xv. 9. § 2.) (Bonamy, Recherches sur tfhistorien Timagene, in the Mem. de VAcademie des Inscr. vol. xiii. p. 35, foil; Schwab, Disputatio de Livioeet Timagene* Jiistoriarum scriptoribus, aemulis, Stuttg. 1834 ; Vossius, De Historicis Graecis, p. 195, foil., ed. Westermann, who makes the rhetorician, the historian and the Syrian three distinct persons ; Clinton, Fast. Hellen. vol. iii. p. 624, who supposes the rhetorician and the historian to be two distinct persons, but makes the Syrian the same as the historian.)

TIMAGENIDAS or TIMAGE'NIDES (Tt-U.ay€j/i8as, TijAayeviSys^ a Theban, son of Herpys, was one of the principal adherents of the Persian cause in the invasion of Xerxes. Shortly before the battle of Plataea, Timagenides advised Mardo-nius to occupy the passes of Cithaeron, and so to intercept the re-inforcements and supplies which were coming in through them to the enemy. The advice was taken, and the Persians succeeded in cutting off a convoy of provisions with 500 beasts of burden. After their victory at Plataea the Greeks advanced against Thebes, and demanded that the chief traitors to the national cause, Tima­genides among the number, should be given up to them. The Thebans at first refused in spite of the ravages which their land suffered, but at length they consented at the instigation of Timagenides himself. It appears that the culprits expected to be brought to an open trial, at which they hoped to have recourse effectually to the expedient of bribery. To prevent this, however, Pausanias car-

TIMANTHES.

ried them off to Corinth, and there put them to death without any judicial ceremony. (Herod, ix. 38, 86—88 ; Paus. vii. 10.) [E. E.]

TIMAGORAS (TVc^o'pas), historical. 1. A Tegean, was one of the ambassadors who were sent, in b. c. 430, to ask the king of Persia to aid the Peloponnesians against Athens. On their way through Thrace they were seized by sadocus at the instigation of the Athenian envoys at the court of Sitalces, and, having been taken to Athens, were there put to death. (Thuc. ii. 67.)

2. A citizen of Cyzicus, and son of Athenagoras. Having been driven into exile by his political op­ponents of the democratic party, he took refuge at the court of Pharnabazus, the satrap of the Persian provinces near the Hellespont, by whom he was sent to Lacedaemon, in b. c. 412, to urge that a fleet should be despatched to support the Greek cities in his satrapy in their intended revolt from Athens. (Thuc. viii. 6, 39.) [pharnabazus, No. 2.]

3. An Athenian, was the colleague of Leon as ambassador from Athens, in b. c. 367, to the Per­sian court. [leon, No. 6.] In this mission he spent four years, and had the address to adapt his conduct to what he perceived to be the king's in­clination, separating himself altogether from Leon, and taking part with Pelopidas, the Theban envoy. His supple compliance and his treachery in reveal­ing state-secrets purchased for him the bounty of Artaxerxes, but on his return home he was im­peached by Leon, and put to death. (Xen. Hell. vii. 1. §§ 33, &c.; Plut. Artax. 22, Pelop. 30; Demosth. de Fals. Leg. pp. 383, 400 ; Ath. ii. p. 48, d, e; Val. Max. vi. 3, ext. 2.) Athenaeus (I. c.) speaks of a Cretan, called Timagoras, who also enjoyed the Persian king's favour and was a dis­tinct person from the Athenian of the same name. See, however, Casaub. ad loc.

4. A Rhodian, was placed in command of five ships, which his countrymen sent to Chalcis, in b. c. 171, to co-operate with C. Lucretius in the war with Perseus. (Polyb. xxvii. 6.)

5. In the same passage of Polybius it is stated that, while these five ships sailed to Chalcis, one more was sent to Tenedus under a commander also named Timagoras, who fell in with and captured the crew of a ship which was conveying Diophanes on an embassy from Perseus to Antiochus Epi-phanes. Diophanes himself escaped. [E. E.]

TIMAGORAS (Ti^ay6pas\ of Chalcis, a painter, contemporary with Panaenus, whom he defeated in a contest for the prize of painting, at the Pythian games. Timagoras afterwards cele­ brated his victory in a poem. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 9. s. 35.) [P. S.]

TIMANDRA (Ti^fya), a daughter of Tynda-reus and Leda, and the wife of Echemus, by whom she became the mother of Euandrus. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 6 ; Paus. viii. 5. § 1 ; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 130.) Another mythical personage of this name is mentioned by Antonius Liberalis (5). [L. S.]

TIMANTHES (T^a^s), an athlete of Cleo-nae. Pausanias relates of him that, when he had ceased to be a competitor at the games, he used still to make daily trial of his strength by bending a huge bow. At length, however* having been absent for some time from his own city, he found on his return that he was no longer able to perform the feat, whereupon he burnt himself to death through mortification. There was a statue of

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