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afforded protection to the Athenian rhetorician Amphicrates, and had assembled a company of Greek players to celebrate the opening of a theatre in his new capital of Tigranocerta. (Plut. Lucull. 21, 22, 29 ; Appian, Mithr. 104.)
The coins of Tigranes, which were probably struck in Syria and bear Greek inscriptions, represent him with a tiara in the Oriental fashion, instead of the simple diadem of the Seleucidae.
COIN OP TIGRANES.
tigranes II., king of Armenia, was a son of artavasdes I., and grandson of the preceding. He was living an exile at Rome, when a party of his countrymen, discontented with the rule of his elder brother, Artaxias, sent to request that he should be placed on the throne. To this Augustus assented, and Tiberius was charged with the duty of accomplishing it, a task which he effected apparently without opposition, Artaxias being put to death by some of the Armenians themselves. Tiberius placed the crown on the head of Tigranes with his own hand (b. c. 20), and then withdrew from Armenia (Tac. Ann. ii. 3 ; Dion Cass. liv. 9 ; Suet. Tib. 9 ; Mon. Ancyr. pp. 35,107, ed. Franz.; Joseph. Ant. xv. 4. § 3). No particulars are known of his reign, which was of short duration. (Tac. 1. c.; Orell. ad loc.)
tigranes III., king of Armenia, appears to have been a son of the preceding, and to have succeeded him on the throne for a short time: but the accounts transmitted to us of the revolutions of the Armenian monarchy at this period are very confused and unsatisfactory. (See Visconti, Icono-graphie Grecque, iii. p. 30 ; and Orell. ad Tac. Ann. ii. 3.) According to a fragment of Dion Cassius, quoted by Visconti (/. c.) he perished in a war against the neighbouring barbarians.
tigranes IV. Another king of this name who was placed on the throne by Augustus, after the death of Artavasdes, would seem to have been distinct from the preceding, as Augustus himself only terms him " a certain Tigranes who belonged to the royal family." (Mon. Ancyr. p. 107.) He is not mentioned by any other historian.
For the later kings of Armenia of this name, see arsacidae. [E. H. B.]
TIGRANES (Tiypdv-ns). 1. A son of the Armenian king who was conquered by Cyrus the Elder. According to Xenophon he had been a schoolfellow of Cyrus, and by his intercession with that monarch, procured the pardon of his father, whose fidelity he thenceforth guaranteed. His name is afterwards repeatedly mentioned in the Cyropaedeia among the friends and attendants of the Persian king (Xen. Cyrop. iii. 1, 2, v. 1, 3, viii. 3. § 25, 4. § 1.) In the Armenian historians Tigranes assumes a much more conspicuous charac-
ter, and is represented as bearing an important part in the overthrow of the Median kingdom, and the defeat of Astyages. He appears to have become a sort of national hero, and his exploits are recounted at length by Moses of Chorene (Hist. Armen. i. 23—29), but they are in all probability fabulous.
2. A Persian of the royal race of the Achae-menidae, who commanded the Median troops in the army of Xerxes, with which he invaded Greece, B. c. 480. After the defeat of the Persian king, Tigranes was appointed to command the army of 60,000 men, which was destined to maintain possession of Ionia. (Herod, vii. 62, ix. 96.)
3. One of the sons of Tigranes I., king of Ar menia, He had at first enjoyed a high place in his father's favour, so that the latter had even bestowed on him the titles and ensigns of royalty. At a later period, however, he was gained over by the party disaffected to the old king, and joined in their intrigues ; but the plot being discovered, he sought safety in flight, and took refuge with Phraates king of Parthia. That monarch readily embraced the opportunity, gave him his daughter in marriage, and invaded Armenia with a large army in order to place him on the throne. But the Parthian king was unable to reduce Artaxata, the capital of Armenia, and after some time re turned into his own dominions, leaving a part only of his forces under Tigranes, who was quickly de feated by the superior arms of his father. He now however sought a refuge in the camp of Pom- pey, who was at this time (b. c. 66) in full ad vance upon Artaxata, and who welcomed the young prince with open arms. But when the elder Tigranes came in person to humble himself before the conqueror, Pompey was easily moved to cle mency, and instead of placing the son upon his father's throne, left the latter in possession of the greater part of his dominions, while he erected the provinces of Sophene and Gordyene into a sub ordinate kingdom for the younger Tigranes. The prince had the imprudence to display openly his dissatisfaction with this arrangement; and not only absented himself from the festival which Pom pey gave on the occasion, but soon after openly disobeyed the orders of the Roman general in regard to the disposal of his treasures. Hereupon Pompey caused him to be immediately arrested and detained as a prisoner. A few years later we find him among the captive princes who adorned the triumph of the Roman conqueror, b. c. 61. (Ap pian, Mithr. 104, 105, 117 ; Dion Cass. xxxiii. 33—36 ; Plut. Pomp. 33, 45.) [E. H. B.]
TILPHUSA (T<A4>oD<ra). 1. The nymph of the well Tilphusa in Boeotia, which was sacred to Apollo. (Horn. Hymn, in ApolL 247 ; Strab. ix. p. 410, &c. ; Apollod. iii. 7. § 3.)
TIMAENETUS (T^cuWos), a painter, whose picture of a wrestler, in the chamber on the left of the propylaea of the Acropolis at Athens, is mentioned by Pausanias (i. 22. §. 7). [P. S.]
TIMAEUS (T^uatos). 1. Of tauromenium in Sicily, the celebrated historian, was the son of Andromachus, who collected the Naxian exiles.