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TIGELLINUS.

celebrates the cooptation of Messalinus, the son of Messala, into the college of the Quinqueviri. But this second book no doubt did not appear till after the death of Tibullus. With it, according to our conjecture, may have been published the elegies of his imitator, perhaps his friend and associate in the society of Messala, Lygdamus (if that be a real name), i. e. the third book: and likewise the fourth, made up of poems belonging, as it were, to this intimate society of Messala, the Panegyric by some nameless author, which, feeble as it is, seems to be of that age ; the poems in the name of Sul-picia, with the concluding one, the thirteenth, a fragment of Tibullus himself.

I. The first edition of Tibullus, with Catullus, Propertius, and the Silvae of Statius, 4to. maj., was printed at Venice by Vindelin de Spira, 1472.

II. The second, likewise, of these four authors at Venice, by John de Colonia, 1475.

III. The first of Tibullus, with only the Epistle of Ovid from Sappho to Phaon, by Florentius de Argentina, Venice (?) about 1472.

IV. Schweiger mentions two other very early editions.

V. Opus Tibulli Albii cum Commentariis Ber-nardini Cyllenii Veronensis, Romae, 1475.

Of modern editions, that (VI.) of Vulpius, VII. that of Brookhusius, were surpassed by the VIII. Tibullus a Heyne, 1st ed. Lipsiae, 1755. The second and third improved editions, 1777—1798.

IX. Albius Tibullus et Lygdamus, a J. U. Voss. Heidelberg, 1811.

X. Albii Tibulli Libri IV. ex recensione Caroli Lachmann. Berolini, 1829.

XI. Albii Tibulli Carmina ex recensione Car. Lachmanni passim mutata. Explicuit Ludolphus Dissenus. Gottingen, 1835.

We have selected these last from several other modern editions published in Germany. [H.H.M.]

L. TIBU'RTIUS, a centurion in the civil war b. c. 48. (Caes. B. C. iii. 19.)

TICHONIUS. [tychonius.]

L. TI'CIDA, one of Caesar's officers, was taken prisoner along with Q. Cominius in b. c. 46. (Hirt. B. Afr. 44, 46.) [cominius, No. 7.]

TFCIDA, a Roman poet, who wrote epigrams in which he spoke of his mistress under a fictitious name. (Ov. Trist. ii. 432; Suet. Gramm. 11.)

P. TICI'NIUS MENA, was the first person who introduced barbers into Italy from Sicily in the 454th year after the foundation of the city. (Varr. R. R. ii. 11. § 10 ; Plin. H. N. vii. 59.)

TIGELLFNUS, SOPHO'NIUS, the son of a native of Agrigentum, owed his rise from poverty and obscurity to his handsome person and his un­scrupulous character. He was banished to Scylfa-ceum (Squillace) in Bruttii (a. d. 39—40), for an intrigue with Agrippina [agrippina, No. 2] and Julia Livilla [julia, No. 8], sisters of Caligula, and respectively the wives of L. Domitius Ahe-nobarbus [No. 10] and M. Vinucius, cos. a. d. 30. (Vet. Schol. in Juv. i. 155 ; Dion Cass. lix. 23.)

Tigellinus was probably among the exiles restored by Agrippina, after she became empress, since early in Nero's reign he was again in favour at court, and on the death of Burrus (a.d. 63) was appointed prae­torian prefect jointly with FeniusRufus. (Tac.Ann. xiv. 48, 51.) Tigellinus ministered to Nero's worst passions, and of all his favourites was the most obnoxious to the Roman people. He inflamed his

TIGELLINUS.

jealousy or his avarice against the noblest members of the senate and the most pliant dependants oi the court. C. Rubellius Plautus [Vol. II. p. 411], Cornelius Sulla, Minucius Thermus, and C. Petro-nius, Nero's master of the ceremonies, were suc­cessively his victims (Tac. Ann. xiv. 57, xvi. 18), and he actively promoted the emperor's divorce from Octavia and his marriage with Poppaea. A. d. 63. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 60—64 ; Dion Cass. Ixii. 13.) In a. d. 65, Tigellinus entertained Nero in his Aemilian gardens, with a sumptuous profligacy unsurpassed even in that age, and in the same year shared with him the odium of burning Rome, since the conflagration had broken out on the scene of the banquet. (Tac. Ann. xv. 37—40 ; Dion Cass. Ixii. 15.) In the prosecutions that followed the discovery of Piso's conspiracy in the following year, Nero found in Tigellinus an able and mer­ciless agent for his revenge. Tigellinus attached himself to Poppaea's faction, and it was said com­monly in Rome, that the imperial privy-council (Tac. Ann. xv. 61) contained only three members, the praetorian prefect, Nero and his wife. The cruelty and rapacity of Tigellinus filled all ranks with dismay. " Pone Tigellinum," says Juvenal (i. 155) using his name -proverbially, and the stake and faggot will be your portion. Annaeus Mela, the younger brother of Seneca the philo­sopher, was one only of many persons who be­queathed a large share of his property to Tigel­linus and his son-in-law, Cossutianus Capito, that the residue might be secured to the rightful heirs (Tac. Ann. xvi. 17 ; Dion Cass. Ixii. 27), and those who escaped from the real or imputed guilt of conspiring with Piso owed their exemption, not to their innocence, but to their bribes. (Dion Cass. ib. 28). It was probably about this time that Apollonius of Tyana was brought before Tigellinus on a charge of having traduced the emperor. But the philosopher managed to impress his judge with such a dread of his supernatural powers that he was dismissed unharmed. (Philostr. Ap. Tyan. iv. 42—44.) The history of Tigellinus is so inwoven with that of his master, that we may refer to the life of Nero and briefly add, that the minister pre­sided at the emperor's nuptials with Sporus, that he accompanied him to Greece, and distinguished himself every where by his venality, his shame-lessness, and his rapacity. (Tac. Ann. xv. 59 ; Dion Cass. Ixiii. 11, 12, 13.) He encouraged Nero to degrade the imperial dignity as a public singer on the stage, and contributed to his downfal as much by his own unpopularity as by pampering his master's vices. (Dion Cass. ib. 21.) Tigel­linus returned to Rome in A. d. 68, and shortly afterwards Nero was dethroned by the indignant legions and the long-suffering senate and people. In his deepest distress (Suet. Ner. 48) the em­peror retained some faithful adherents, but Tigelli­nus was not of the number. He joined with Nymphidius Sabinus, who had succeeded Fenius Rufus as praetorian prefect, in transferring the allegiance of the soldiers to Galba. By large bribes to T. Vinius, Galba's freedman, and to Vinius's daughter he purchased a reprieve from the sentence which, on all occasions, the Roman people clamorously demanded, and he even obtained from Galba' a decree rebuking the populace for their petition, and informing them that Tigellinus was sinking rapidly under consumption. On the accession of Otho, however, in January, a. d, 70,

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