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THRASYDAEUS.

condemned and thrown into prison. (Xen. Hellen. v. 1. § 26 ; Demosth. adv. Timocr. p. 742.)

6. An Elean, the son of Aeneas. He was a soothsayer, in which capacity he foretold to the Mantineans their victory over Agis and the Lace­daemonians, and himself took part in the battle. (Pans. vi. 2, § 4, viii. 10. § 5 ; comp. vi. 13. § 11, vi. 14. § 9.)

7. Brother of Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse. On the death of Hieron, Thrasybulus succeeded him in the government. It does not appear dis­tinctly whether he assumed the tyranny because the son of Gelon was not yet old enough, or, as the language of Aristotle (Polit. v. 8) indi­cates, though called tyrant, and possessing the substance of power, was in fact little more than the minister or favourite of his nephew, whom he is said to have corrupted, that he might after­wards supplant him. Aristotle's version of the matter also represents the resistance offered by the friends of the rightful heir, as leading to the over­throw of the dynasty. It is possible enough, as Dr. Thirl wall suggests (Hist, of Greece, vol. iii. p. 224), that Thrasybulus became the guardian of his nephew on the death of Polyzelus, and before the death of Hieron; and that, having rendered the youth odious and contemptible, he found no diffi­culty, when Hieron died, in setting him aside, and usurping his authority. This supposition, however, still leaves unexplained Aristotle's statement about the expulsion of the dynasty, which is one of the most important features of his account. Little, therefore, is gained by any endeavour to reconcile the two versions. According to the more detailed narration of Diodorus (xi. 67), Thrasybulus di­rectly succeeded Hieron, and soon provoked a revolt by his rapacity and cruelty. With the aid of foreign mercenaries, and some troops from Aetna and Catana, amounting altogether to 15,000 men, he maintained his ground for some time in Acra-dina and the Island. The Syracusans entrenched themselves in the quarter called Tyche, and sent for assistance to Gela, Agrigentum, Selinus, Hi-mera, and the inland cities of Sicily. They readily lent their aid, and Thrasybulus was decisively defeated both by sea and by land. He thereupon entered into a negotiation with his revolted sub­jects, and was allowed to abdicate his authority and retire into exile. He withdrew to Locri, in Italy, and there ended his days. His dynasty ended with him.

8. Son of Xenocrates, and nephew of Theron tyrant of Agrigentum. He is mentioned on more than one occasion by Pindar. (Pyih. vi., IstJim. ii., Fragm. 89. 1.) [C. P. M.]

THRASYBULUS (0pct<ru€ou\os), a friend and contemporary of Galen, in the latter half of the second century after Christ. Galen addressed two of his works to him, viz. De Optima Secta (vol. i. p. 106) and Utrum Medicinae sit anGym-nastices Hygieine (vol. v. p. 806) ; but it does not seem certain that he was a phvsician. [W. A. G.]

THRASYDAEUS (©pcurvSeuos). 1. A citi­zen of Elis, and leader of the democratic party there. When the Spartans under Agis invaded the Elean territory, in b. c. 400, the oligarchs of Elis, led by Xenias, made an attempt to over­power their political adversaries, and killed, among others, a man, whom, from the likeness between the two, they mistook for Thrasydaeus. The democratic party were hereupon much disheart-

THRASYLLUS.

ened, but the mistake was soon discovered, and Thrasydaeus, who, at the beginning of the out­break, was sunk in sleep from the influence of wine, put himself at the head of the people, and completely conquered the oligarchs. Agis, how­ever, when he retired from Elis, left a Lacedaemo­nian garrison in Epitalium, and the Eleans were so harassed by the ravages it committed, that Thrasy­daeus, in the following year (b. c. 399), was com­pelled to sue to Sparta for peace, and to purchase it by absolute submission. (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. §§ 27 — 30 ; Pans. iii. 8.) We may perhaps identify with the subject of the present article the Thrasy-laeus of Elis, who is mentioned as having been per­suaded by his friend Lysias, the orator, to supply two talents to the Athenian patriots under Thra­sybulus, in aid of their enterprise against the Thirty Tyrants, b. c. 403 (Pseudo-Plut. Fit. X. Oral. Lys.}

2. Of Elis, an eunuch, who, instigated by a private injury, murdered Evagoras, king of Salamis in Cyprus, in b. c. 374. (Theopomp. ap. Phot. p. 120, a, b ; comp. Arist. Pol. v. 10, ed. Bekk. ; Diod. xv. 47 ; Wess. ad loc.) [evagoras, No.

I.J [E. K]

THRASYDAEUS (0/>a<ry5cuos), tyrant of Agrigentum, was the son and successor of Theron. Already during his father's lifetime he had been appointed to the government of Himera, where, by his violent and arbitrary conduct, he alienated the minds of the citizens, so that they were on the point of breaking out into revolt. But having ap­ plied for support to Hieron of Syracuse, that ruler betrayed their application to Theron, who, in con­ sequence, put to death the leaders of the disaffected party, and effectually re-established his authority. (Diod. xi. 48.) Whether Thrasydaeus retained his position at Himera after this, we know not : but on the death of Theron he succeeded without opposition in the sovereignty of both cities. His tyrannical and violent character soon displayed itself, and rendered him as unpopular at Agrigentum as he had been at Himera. But his first object was to renew the war with Hieron, against whom he had already taken an active part during his father's lifetime. (Schol. ad Pind. OL ii. 29.) He therefore assembled a large force of mercenaries, besides a general levy from Agrigentum and Hi­ mera, and advanced against Hieron, but was de­ feated after an obstinate and sanguinary struggle ; and the Agrigentines immediately took advantage of this disaster to expel him from their city. He made his escape to Greece, but was arrested at Megara, and publicly executed. (Diod. xi. 53.) Diodorus assigns the whole of these events to the year b. c. 472, in which Theron died, but there are some difficulties in this chronology. (See Bb'ckh, ad Pind. vol. iii. p. 209 ; and Brunet de Presle, Reclierches sur les Etablissemens Grecs en Sidle, p. 1 45, note.) [E. H. B.] THRASYLLA ENNIA. [ennia.] THRASYLLUS or THRASYLUS (®pd<rv\- Aos, ©paeruAos). 1. An Argive, was one of the five generals of the commonwealth when Argolis was invaded by the Lacedaemonians under Agis

II., in b.c. 418. Agis succeeded in placing a division of his army between the Argive forces and Argos, thus cutting them off from their city, while their flank and rear were threatened by his two other divisions. Thrasyllus perceived the danger of this position, and, together with Alciphron (one

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