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THEOPHYLACTUS.

generally, the other of pleasure, as Aristotle had defined it (Diog. Laert. v. 44, irepl ySovfjs &s 'Apur- roT€\f)s); and although, like his teacher, he pre­ ferred contemplative (theoretic), to active (practical) life (Cic. ad Att. ii. 16), he was at the same time disposed to set the latter free from the fetters of family life, &c. in a manner of which the former would not have approved (Hieron. adv. Jovinian. i, 189, Bened.) Respecting Theophrastus's treatment of botany in his two chief works, see J. G. Schneider, " de Auctoritate, Integritate, Argumento, Ordine, Methodo et Pretio Librorum, de Historia et Causis Plantarum" (Tkeophr.Opp. v. p.227—264.) Comp. R. Sprengel, Gescldchte der Botanik, vol. i. p. 52, &c. [CH. A. B.]

THEOPHYLACTUS (©eoQvXdKro*). 1. Si-mocatta (o 5£/uo/carr779, 2f/xo/caTT0s, ^lUO/caTT/s, or St^uo/caTos, for all these forms of the name are found), was an Egyptian by descent, but a Locrian by birth ; and flourished at Constantinople, where he held some public offices (cbro eirapx^v Ka^ ^vrt-ypxQevs, Phot.) under Heraclius, about a. d. 610 —629, though it is evident that he was writing before this period, probably in retirement. His chief work was a history of the reign of the em­peror Maurice, in eight books, from the death of Tiberius II. and the accession of Maurice, in a. d. 582, down to the murder of Maurice and his children by Phocas in A. d. 602. There are various indications in the work itself, that Theophylact was living and writing in retirement during the reign of Phocas, and it seems probable that he had been personally acquainted with Maurice. Thus, he contrasts the depressed state of literature under Phocas with the favour it enjoyed under Heraclius, in a Dialogue between Philosophy and History, which is prefixed to his work. After the death of Phocas in a. d. 610, he read in public from an elevated position the passage of his history de­scribing the death of Maurice, and the people were moved to tears by the recital. This statement, which we have on the authority of Theophylact himself (viii. 12) proves that his work was partly written during the reign of Phocas ; while on the other hand, he mentions in the same chapter the conclusion of the Persian war, by the death of Chosroes II. in A. d. 628, so that the work could not have been completed till that year or the next, in which Theophylact appears to have died. The history of Theophylact, which is known by the Latin title of Historiae Mauricii Tiberii Impcratoris Libri VIII., seems to be the same work which is quoted by Eustathius (ad Dionys. Perieg. 730) by the title of iffropia ot'/cou/^ei/rj, which seems to refer to the fact, that it was not confined to the affairs of Constantinople, but contained notices of events occurring in all parts of the known world. Besides the work itself, we have an epitome of it by Photius (Bill. Cod. 65), who relates some par­ticulars respecting the author, and characterises his style very minutely, as being not destitute of grace, but often frigid and puerile through the frequent occurrence of figures and allegorical turns of ex­pression, and tiresome from the interruptions of moral reflections inserted out of season. The other works of Theophylact are (2) Eighty-five Letters, consisting of the three classes of Morales, twenty-nine in number, Rusticae, twenty-eight, and Ama-toriae, twenty-eight; and (3) Problems in Physics ('atto/w'cu <i>t><nK:cu, Quaestioncs PJiysicac}, respecting the nature of animals, and especially of man.

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THEOPHYLACTUS.

There is no complete edition of Theophylact's works. The edition of A. Schottus, with a Latin Version by Kimedoncius, Antverp. 1598, 1599, 8vo., comprising all his then known works, does' not contain the History, but only the Epitome of it by Photius. The account of embassies in this edition is no distinct work, but a collection of extracts from the History. The History was first published, from a MS. in the library of Maximilian of Bavaria, with a Latin version, by Jac. Pontanus, Ingolst. 1604, 4to. ; revised, and with a Glossary of the low Greek words, by C. Annib. Fabrotti, Paris, 1648, fol.; reprinted in the Venice collection of Byzantine historians, 1729, fol.: it has also been edited by Imm. Bekker, in the Corpus Script. Hist. Byzant. Bonn, 1834, 8vo. The Letters were pub­lished in the Epistolae Graecae of Aldus, 1499,4to. and of Cujacius, 1606, fol., and, in Latin only, by Haller, Cracov. 1509, 4to. The Quaestiones Phy-sicae were published, with the similar work of Cassius latrosophista, by Rivinus, Lips. 1653, 4to. The Letters and Physical Questions were published together, Lugd. Bat. 1596, 12mo., with the works of Cassius latrosophista ; again, with the Quaestiones of Cassius, and the Letters of Julian, Gallus, Basil, and Gregory of Nazianzus, by Bonaventura Vul-canius, Lugd. Bat. 1597, 12mo.; and, lastly, with the Latin version of Kimedoncius, and critical notes, by Boissonade, Paris, 1835, 8vo. There is a French translation of the Quaestiones Physicae, by F. Morel, Paris, 1603, 12mo. (Cave, Hist. Liit. s. a. 611, p. 575; Hankius, de Byzant. Her. Scriptor. pt. i. pp. 186—194 ; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. pp. 329, 330, ed. Westermann ; Fabric. Bibt. Graec. vol. vii. pp. 582—586 ; Schrockh, Christliche Kircliengescldchte, vol. xix. pp. 92—94; Hoffmann, Lex. Bibliogr. Script. Graec.}

2. archbishop of bulgaria, flourished about a.d. 1070 and onwards, and is celebrated for his com­mentaries on the Scriptures, and some other works. There are scarcely any particulars of his life worth recording. He appears to have been a native of Constantinople, and a deacon in the principal church there, and to have been appointed to the archbishopric of Bulgaria, the chief city of which was Acris, between a. d. 1070 and 1077. Here he suffered much from the uncivilised state of the people of his province, and tried in vain to lay down his office. He appears to have lived down to A. d. 1112, or later.

His Commentaries upon the Gospels, the Acts, the Epistles of Paul, and the Minor Prophets, are founded on the commentaries of Chrysostom, and are of considerable value. He also wrote a treatise on royal education (IlaiSefa BacnAifcyf, Institutio Regia) for the use of the prince Constantinus Porphyrogennetus,the son of Michael VII.; seventy-five Letters; some Homilies and Orations, and a few other small treatises. A splendid edition of all his works in Greek and Latin was published by J. F. Bernard Maria de Rubeis, Venet. 1754— 1763, 4 vols. folio, with a Preliminary Dissertation, containing all that is known of the life and writings of Theophylact, with an elaborate analysis of his works and his opinions. (See also Cave, Hist. Litt. s. a. 1077, p. 153 ; Fabric. Bill. Grace, vol. vii. pp. 586—598 ; Schrockh, Christ. Kirchengeschichte, vol. xxviii. pp. 313, foil.; for an account of several editions of portions of his works, see Hoffmann, Lexicon Bibliogr. Script. Graec,.}

A few other unimportant persons of the name

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