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THEODOSIUS.

Tz/07, caelatura), and of gem-engraving ; his works in those departments being the gold and silrer cra­ters mentioned above, and the ring of Polycrates. (For the different views of modern writers respect­ing these artists, see Sillig, Cat. Artif. s. vv. Tele-cles, Theodorns ; Miiller, Arch'doL d. Kunst. §§ 35, n.l, 55, n., 60, 70, n. 4, 80. n. i. 1, 97, n. 2, 159 ; Bahr, ad Herod. II. cc.)

There were several later artists of the same name : —

3. An Argive sculptor, the son of Poros, made a statue of Nicis, the son of Andromidas, which was dedicated by the people of Hermione, as we learn from an extant inscription, the character of which as well as the nature of the work, an hono­rific statue of a private individual, lead to the con­clusion that the artist lived at a comparatively late period. (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. No. 1197 ; Welcker, Kunstblatt, 1827, No. 83 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a M.Schorn, pp. 415, 416, 2d ed,)

4. A sculptor or modeller, of unknown time, made the celebrated bas-relief, known as the Tabula Iliaca, as appears from an inscription on its back, which runs thus, ©EOAftPHOjHITEXNH, that is, ©eoSwpetos f) Tkyyr}. (Lehrs, Rliein. Mus. 1843, vol. ii. p. 355 ; Jahn, in Gerhard's Arch'doL Zei-tung, vol. i. p. 302 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Scliorn, p. 416, 2d ed.)

5. A Theban statuary, mentioned by Diogenes Laertius, in his list of persons of the name (ii. 104). Nothing more is known of him, nor of the three other painters whose names are found in the same list.

6. A painter mentioned by Polemon (Diog. I.e.}.

7. An Athenian painter, mentioned by Meno-dotus. (Diog. L c.}

8. An Ephesian painter, mentioned by Theo-phanes, in his work on painting. (Diog. L c.)

9. A painter, whose name is contained in Pliny's list of those who were primis proximi (H. N. xxxv. 8. s. 40. § 40), and who may very probably be identical with one of the three mentioned by Diogenes. Pliny ascribed to him the following works: — Se inungentem, which appears to mean an athlete anointing himself ; the murder of Cly-temnestra and Aegisthus by Orestes ; the Trojan War, a composition on several panels, preserved at Rome in the portico of Philip ; Cassandra, also at Rome, in the temple of Concord (comp. Welcker, ad Phiiostr. Imag. p. 459) ; Leontium Epicuri cogi-tantem, which ought perhaps to be read like the simi­lar passage a little above (10. s. 36. § 19) Leontio-nein pictorem ; and king Demetrius. This last work, if a portrait taken from life, would place the artist's date at, or a little before, b. c. 300.

10. A Samian painter, the disciple of Nico- sthenes, mentioned by Pliny in his list of those painters who were non ignobiles quidem^ in trans- cursu, tamen dicendi. (H. N. xxxv. 11. s. 40. § 42.) ' [P. S.]

THEODOSIUS. This able general, from whom descended a line of Roman emperors, after having acquired a great military reputation, was sent a. d. 367 by Valentinian I. to drive away the Picts and Scots, who were ravaging Britain. Theo-dosius crossed the straits from Boulogne with his troops of Heruli, Batavians, Jovi-i, and Victores, and landed at Sandwich. On his road to London he defeated several hordes of the barbarian in­vaders ; and the citizens of London, who were despairing of their safety, gladly received him

THEODOSIUS.

within their walls. After establishing order and confidence, he commenced his operations against the invaders, and in two campaigns cleared the province of its savage enemies, and repaired and strengthened the military positions.. He drove the Caledonians to the northern part of the island, and formed a province or provincial division of Valentia, or Valentiniana, so named in honour of Valentinian. This tract composed the country between the wall of Severus and the rampart of Antoninus, which Theodosius recovered from the enemy. The history of these campaigns is re­corded byAmmianus Marcellinus (xxvii. 8, xxviii. 3). Claudian leads us to infer that Theodosius also pursued the enemies of Rome on the stormy seas of the North ; and the Orkneys and Thule were stained with the blood of the Picts and the Saxons. (In Quart. Cons. Hanor. 31, &c.)

Theodosius, on his return from Britain a. d. 370, was rewarded for his services with the rank of master-general of the cavalry, and being stationed on the Upper Danube, he defeated the Alenmnni. In a. d. 372, Firmus, a Moor, the son of Nabal or Nubal, the most powerful of the Moorish princes who professed obedience to the sovereignty of Rome, revolted against the Roman authority ; and the natives, who were exasperated at the tyranny of Count Romanus, the governor of Africa, joined the standard of Firmus. The Moorish chieftain plun­dered Caesarea, on the site of the modern Algiers, and made himself master of Mauritania and Nu-midia ; and he is said to have assumed the title of king. Romanus being unable to oppose this active enemy, Theodosius was sent to Africa about the close of 372 or the beginning of 373. He sailed from the Rhone and landed at Igilgilis, before the Moorish chief heard of his coming. The first step of Theodosius was to arrest Romanus, whose mal­administration was considered to be the cause of the revolt. The campaign against Firmus is re­corded by Ammiaims (xxix. 5) in a long, most confused, and corrupt chapter, out of which Gibbon has extracted a narrative. Firmus had the cun­ning and treachery of Jugurtha, and Theodosius displayed all the talents of Metellus, in his nego­tiations with the Moor, and in pursuit of him through a country which presented unexpected difficulties to regular troops. Firmus at lust fled to Igmazen, king of the Isaflenses, a people of whose position Ammianus gives no indication. Igrnazen was summoned to surrender Firmus, and after having felt the Roman power, and the con­sequences of refusal, he determined to give him up. Firmus escaped by a voluntary death. He first made himself drunk, and while his guards were asleep, hanged himself by a rope, which he fixed to a nail in the wall. The dead body was given up to Theodosius, who led his troops back to Sitifis. In the reign of Valens, a. d. 376, Theo­dosius was beheaded at Carthage. The cause of

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his execution is unknown. (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, vol. iv. c. 25 ; Tillemont, Histoire des Em- pereurs, vol. v., where all the authorities are referred to.) [G. L.]

THEODOSIUS I., was the son of Theodosius, who restored Britain to the empire, and was be­headed at Carthage. The family of Theodosius was Spanish, and the future emperor was born in Spain, about a. d. 346, as some say at Italica, the birth-place of Trajan, though other authorities say that he was a native of Cauca in Gallicia. His

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