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THEMISTOCLES.

have been since published, by H. Stephanns, whose edition contains thirteen of them, Paris, 1562, 8vo. ; by G. Remus, who reprinted, with a Lation version, only the six orations which Stephanus had pub­lished for the first time, and a seventh in Latin only, Amberg, 1605, 4to. ; by Petavius, who printed sixteen, in Greek and Latin, fifteen of which had been hitherto ascribed to Synesius, besides a seventeenth, which is only extant in Latin, but of which Petavius gives also a Greek version by himself, Paris, 1613, 8vo. ; by P. Panti-nus, who printed a few orations not before edited, 1614, 8vo. ; by Petavius again, who inserted in this second edition all the orations which had as yet appeared, to the number of nineteen, in Greek and Latin, several of the Latin versions being new, with fuller notes than in his first edition, Paris, 1618, 4to. ; and by Harduin, who first published the whole thirtvthree orations, with the versions

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and notes of Petavius and his own, Paris, 1684, fol. Besides these thirty-three orations, another, hitherto unknown, against certain persons who had attacked Themistius for accepting the prefecture of the city, was discovered at Milan bv Cardinal Mai,

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as mentioned above, and published by him, in Greek and Latin, in 1816, 8vo., together with a newly-discovered fragment of the second oration, and two supplements to the nineteenth and twenty-third. Dindorf also founded upon the Milan MS. a new edition, first of two of the orations, Lips. 1830, 8vo., and afterwards of them all, Lips. 1832, 8vo. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. pp. 790, foil. ; Clinton, Fasti Romani, under the several dates given in this article ; Hoffmann, Lexicon Biliograph. Script. Graec. s. v.)

The Greek Anthology contains one epigram ascribed to Themistius, on the subject, according to the superscription in the Aldine edition, of his own appointment to the prefecture of the city by Julian. It would seem, however, that there is a mistake respecting both the author and the subject of this epigram. In the Palatine MS. it is ascribed to Palladius, and it is quite in his style. The subject is explained by Maio- (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 404 ; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. iii. p. 112, vol. x. p. 191, vol. xiii. p. 957 ; Maio, ad Orat. xxxiv. p. 458, p. 471,ed. Dindorf.)

2. There was another Greek writer of this name, who lived much later, and was the founder of the sect of the Agnoetae, who were so called from their asserting that Christ's knowledge was not perfect. The little that is known of him is not worth men­ tioning here. (See Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. vi. p. 794.) - [P. S.]

THEMISTO (©e^o-TcS). 1. A daughter of Nereus and Doris. (Hes.- Thcog. 261.)

2. A daughter of the Lapithe Hypseus, and the wife of Athamas. (Apollod. i. 9. § 2 ; Athen. xiii. p. 560 ; comp. athamas.)

3. The mother of Areas, who is commonly called Callisto, and by some Megisto. (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Apitds ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 300 ; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 1.)

4. Of Cyprus, was said by some to be the mother of Homer. (Paus. x. 24. § 3.) [L. S.j THEMISTOCLEIA. [aristocleia.] THEMI'STOCLES (©e^uo-rowA.?}*), was the son of Neocles, not one of the most distinguished among the Athenians, though he was allied to the Lyco-medae. The name of his mother was Abrotonon, a Thracian woman, according to some authors, but

THEMISTOCLES.

others call her Euterpe, and say that she was a Carian ; and Neanthes adds that she was of Hali-carnassus. As his mother was not an Athenian, Themistocles belonged to the class of nothi. (Plut. TJiemist. 1, compare Pericl. c. 37.) Themistocles was born, about b. c. 514 as it is conjectured. In his youth he had an impetuous character ; he dis­played great intellectual power combined with a lofty ambition and desire of political distinction. In his hours of relaxation he did not join in the ordinary amusements of the boys, but he practised himself in making speeches on imaginary subjects. His master used to say to him " My boy, you will not be any thing little, but certainly something great, good or bad." He had not much taste for the usual branches of learning and for accomplishments, but be showed a decided liking for all studies which strengthened the understanding and had a practical object. There is a story that his father who saw his ambitious turn of mind, wishing to divert him from a political career, pointed out to him some old gallies thrown on the shore and neglected, and he told him that this was the way that " the many" treated popular leaders, when they were no longer of any use. The remark, though true, did not keep Themistocles from his course, nor will it keep others.

The ambition of Themistocles was to be the first man in Athens, and he began his career by setting himself in opposition to those who had most power, among whom Aristides was the chief. We cannot infer from the words of Plutarch (c. 3) whether Themistocles was in the battle of Marathon (b. c. 490) or not; but if he was born so early as b.c. 514, he must have been old enough for military service in b.c. 490. The fame which Miltiades acquired by his generalship at Marathon made a deep im­pression on Themistocles ; he became thoughtful, and avoided his usual company ; and in reply to the remarks of his friends on the change in his habits, he said, that the trophy of Miltiades would not let him sleep. Others thought that the victory of Marathon had terminated the Persian war ; but Themistocles foresaw that it was only the beginning of a greater struggle, and it was his policy to prepare Athens for it.

His rival Aristides was ostracized in b. c. 483, to which event Themistocles contributed ; and from this time he was the political leader in Athens. In b. c. 481 he was Arch on Eponymus. The chronology of the early part of the life of Themis­tocles is uncertain. It was perhaps before his archonship, or it may have been in that year that he persuaded the Athenians to employ the produce of the silver mines of Laurium in building ships, instead of distributing it among the Athenian citizens. (Herod, vii. 144 ; Plut. ThemisL c. 4.) The motive which he suggested was that the fleet of Athens should be made a match for that of Aegina, with which state Athens was then at war ; but his real object was to prepare Athens against a future attack from the Persians. It was the policy of Themistocles to draw the Athenians to the sea, as he was convinced that it was only by their fleet that Athens could repel the Persians and obtain the supremacy in Greece. The number of ships which were built at the suggestion of Themistocles was two hundred, according to Herodotus; and they were not employed against Aegina, with which state Athens made peace, but against the Persians ; and thus, as Plutarch remarks, the policy

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