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he ever visited Rome, though it is perhaps more probable that he did so. He differed from his tutor on several points in his old age, and became the founder of a new sect called the " Methodici," which long exercised an extensive influence on medical science. (Cels. De Med. i. praef. p. 5 ; Galen, De Meth. Med. i. 4, 7. vol. x. pp. 35, 52 ; Cramer's Anecd. Graeca Paris, vol. i. p. 395, where he is called by an obvious mistake Me0^(rcoj'). He wrote several medical works, but in what lan­guage is not mentioned ; of these only the titles and a few fragments remain, preserved princi­pally by Caelius Aurelianus : e.g. — 1. "Libri Periodici." 2. " Epistolae," in at least nine * books. 3. " Celeres Passiones," and 4. " Tardae Passiones," each in at least two books. 5. " Liber Salutaris." 6. " De Plantagine." (Plin. H. N. xxv. 39 ; Macer Flor. De Vir. Herb. c. 6. v. 265.) To these works Fabricius adds one, " De Elephan-tiasi" (BibL Gr. vol. xiii. p. 432, ed. vet.), but this is probably a mistake (see Gael. Aurel. De Morb. Chron. iv. 1. p. 493). An account of the doctrines of the Methodici is given in the Dic­tionary of Antiquities, and his medical opinions on different subjects (so far as they can be ascer­tained) may be found in Haller's Biblioth. Medic. Pract. vol. i., or in Sprengel's Hist, de la Med. vol. ii. The only points worth noticing here, are, that he is perhaps the first physician who made use of leeches (Gael. Aurel. De Morb. Chron. i. 1. p. 286) ; and that he is said to have been himself attacked with hydrophobia, and to have recovered (id. De Morb. Acut.m. 16. p. 232 ; Dioscor. De Venen. Animal. c. 1. vol. ii. p. 59). Eudemus and Proculus are said to have been followers (" sectatores ") of The­mison, but this probably only means that they be­longed to the sect of the Methodici (Gael. Aurel. De Morb. Acut. ii. 38, De Morb. Chron. iii. 8. pp. 171, 469). Besides the passages in ancient authors relating to Themison that are referred to by Haller, Sprengel, and Fabricius (BibL Gr. vol. xiii. p. 431, ed. vet.), he is also quoted by Soranus (De Arte Obstetr. pp. 12, 21, 210, 212, 240, 290.)

2. The physician mentioned by Juvenal in his well-known line

" Quot Themison aegros autumno occiderit uno."

(Sat. x. 221.)

is by many commentators (perhaps by most} con­sidered to be the same person as the founder of the Methodici. However, it seems hardly probable that Juvenal would have cared for satyrizing a physician who was not a contemporary ; and there­fore perhaps the old scholiast on Juvenal" is right in saying that he was u archiater illius temporis," i. e. in the first century after Christ.

3. A slave of Appuleius, the author of the " Golden Ass," who lived in the second century after Christ. (Appul. Apol. pp. 39, 46, 55, ed. 1635.)

Haller mentions in his list of physicians " The­ mison Macedo, Antiocho carus," and refers to Athen. vii. [§ 35. p. 289], but this appears to be a mistake. [W. A. G.]

THEMISON (0e,iuVwj/) the author of a work

* The passage quoted by Paulus Aegineta (iii. 15. p. 426), from Epist. lib. x. is quoted by Caelius Aurelianns (De Morb. Chron. i. 3. p. 288), from lib. ii.


entitled ITa\A9]j/k, which is cited by Athenaeus (vi. p. 235, a).

THEMISTA (©e/Aio-TT?), of Lampsacus, the wife of a certain Leonteus or Leon, was a contem­porary and correspondent of Epicurus, and was celebrated herself as a philosopher. (Diog. Lae'rt. x. 5, with the note of Menagius ; Cic. in Pison. 26, de Fin. ii. 21 ; Lactant. iii. 25.)

THEMISTAGORAS (©e^Krrayopas}, the an-thor of a work entitled the Golden Book (xpvo-e-ri j6i£Aos), which appears to have been partly of an historical nature. (Athen. xv. p. 681, a; Etym. s. v. 'AffTvira\aia.)

THEMFSTIUS (©e^Vrm). ]- The distin~ guished philosopher and rhetorician, surnamed Euphrades on account of his eloquence, was a Paphlagonian, the son of Eugenius, who was also a distinguished philosopher, and who is more than once mentioned in the orations of Themistius. He flourished, first at Constantinople and afterwards at Rome, in the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valens, Gratian, and Theodosius ; and he enjoyed the favour of all those emperors, notwith­standing their diversities of character and opinion, and notwithstanding the fact that he himself was not a Christian. Themistius was instructed by his father in philosoph}', and devoted himself chiefly to Aristotle, though he also studied the systems of Pythagoras and Plato. While still a youth he wrote commentaries on Aristotle, which were made public without his consent, and obtained for him a high reputation. He passed his youth in Asia Minor and Syria. He first met with Constantius when the emperor visited Ancyra in Galatia in the eleventh year of his reign, b. c. 347, on which occasion Themistius delivered the first of his extant orations, irepl <pi\avQpo)irias. It was not long after that he fixed his residence at Constantinople, where he taught philosophy for twenty years. In A. d. 355 he was made a senator ; and the letter is still extant, in which Constantius recommends him to the senate, and speaks in the highest terms both of Themistius himself and of his father. We also possess the oration of thanks which Themistius addressed to the senate of Constantinople early in a.d. 356, in reply to the emperor's letter (Orat. ii.). In A. d. 357 he recited in the senate of Constanti­nople two orations in honour of Constantius, which were intended to have been delivered before the emperor himself, who was then at Rome (Orat. iii. iv.). As the reward of his panegyrics, Constantius conferred upon him the honour of a bronze statue ; and, in a.d. 361, he was appointed to the prae­torian dignity by a decree still extant, in which he is mentioned in the following terms, Themi­stius^ cujus auget scientia dignitatem (Cod. Theodos. vi. tit. 4. s. 12 ; corap. Orat. xxxi., in which The­mistius says, ap/cet /j.ol KMffTdvrios, 6 K6(T/j.ov ttjs eavrov fia(ri\eias t^jv e/ji-rjv (piXoo'ofyiav enrobi/ 7roAAa/as, and in which he also recites the com­pliments paid to him by Julian, Valens, Gratian, and Theodosius). Constantius died in a.d. 361 ; but Themistius, as a philosopher and a heathen, naturally retained the favour of Julian, who spoke of him as the worthy senator of the whole world, and as the first philosopher of his age. (Themist. Orat. xxxi.) Suidas (s. v.) states that Julian made Themistius prefect of Constantinople ; but this is disproved by the speech delivered by Themistius, when he was really appointed to that office under Theodosius. (See below.} The error of Suidae

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