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against Aristotle. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 144.)
TAURUS, PACU'VIUS [pacuvjus, No. 3.] TAURUS, STATI'LIUS. 1. statilius taurus, one of the most distinguished of Octavian's generals. His name appears in the Fasti as consul suffectus in b. c. 37, but he is first mentioned by ancient writers in the following year in the war against Sex. Pompeius, in Sicily. He commanded Antony's fleet, which sailed from Tarentum, and he rendered important services in the war. After the flight of Pompeius from Sicily, Taurus sailed over to Africa, which he secured for Octavian without difficulty. In b. c. 34 he received the honour of a triumph on account of his success in Africa (Fasti Capit), and in the course of the same year he accompanied Octavian to Dalmatia, and was left in the country in command of the army when Octavian returned to Rome. At the battle of Ac-tium, in b. c. 31, Taurus commanded the land-force of Octavian, which was drawn up on the shore. In b. c. 29 he defeated the Cantabri, Vaccaei, and Astures. He was raised to the consulship in b. c. 26 • and in b.c. 16, when the emperor went to Gaul, the government of the city and of Italy was left to Taurus, with the' title of praefectus urbi. (Appian, B. C. v. 97—99,103, ] 05,109,118 ; Dion Cass. xlix. 14, 38 ; Appian, ///. 27 ; Dion Cass. 1. 13; Pint. Ant. 65 ; Dion Cass. li. 20, liii. 23, liv. ]9 ; Tac. Ann. vi. 11 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 127.) In the fourth consulship of Augustus, b. c. 30, Taurus built an amphitheatre of stone at his own expence, and at its opening exhibited a show of gladiators ; and the people in return allowed him to appoint one of the praetors every year. This amphitheatre was burnt down in the great fire at Rome, in the reign of Nero. (Dion Cass. li. 23, 1'xii. 18 ; Suet. Octav. 29 ; Tac. Ann. iii. 72.)
There was a Statilius Taurus, who was triumvir of the mint under Augustus, as we learn from coins, but whether he was the same person as the preceding cannot be determined. The annexed coin has on the obverse the legend, tavrvs regvlvs pvlcher, and on the reverse, uivir A A A f f (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 316.)
COIN OF STATILIUS TAURUS.
4. M. statilius taurus was consul a. d. 44 with L. Quintius Crispinus Secundus, and afterwards governed Africa as proconsul. He possessed great wealth, which proved his ruin. Agrippina, coveting his gardens, got Tarquitius Priscus, who had been the legate of Taurus in Africa, to accuse the latter of repetundae and of magic. Taurus put an end to his own life before the senate pronounced sentence. (Dion Cass. Ix. 13; Tac. Ann. xii. 59, xiv. 46.)
TAXILES (Ta|i'A7js). 1. An Indian prince or king, who reigned over the tract between the Indus and the Hydaspes, at the period of the expedition of Alexander, B. c. 327., His real name was Mophis, or Omphis, and the Greeks appear to have called him Taxiles or Taxilas, from the name of his capital city of Taxila, near the modern Attock. (Diod. xvii. 86; Curt. viii. 12. §§ 4, 14.) He appears to have been on terms of hostility with his neighbour Porus, who held the territories east of the Hydaspes, and it was probably with a view of strengthening himself against this foe, that he sent an embassy to Alexander, while the latter was yet in Sogdiana, with offers of assistance and support. On the approach of the conqueror he hastened to meet him with valuable presents, and placed himself and all his forces at his disposal. Nor were these vain professions: he assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus, supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality. (Arr. Anab. iv. 22, v. 3, 8; Curt. viii. 12; Diod. xvii. 86 ; Plut. A lex. 59, 65 ; Strab. xv. p. 698.) On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5000 men, and bore a part in the contest at the passage of the Hydaspes. After that victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus, to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy. Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was intrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus. (Arr. Anab. v. 8, 18, 20 ; Curt. viii. 14. § 35, ix. 3. § 22). A considerable accession of power was granted him after the death of Philip, son of Machatas ; and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander himself, as well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadeisus, b. c. 321. (Arr. ap. Phot. p. 72, a.; Dexippus, ibid. p. 64, b. ; Diod. xviii. 3, 39 ; Justin. xiii. 4.) But at a subsequent period we find Eudemus, the commander of the Macedonian troops in his province, possessing the sole authority: whether Taxiles had been displaced by force or removed by a natural death, we are not informed.
2. A general in the service of Mithridates the Great, and one of those in whom he reposed the highest confidence. He is first mentioned in b. c. 86, when he was sent by Mithridates, with an army of not less than 110,000 men, to Europe, to make his way, through Thrace and Macedonia, to the assistance of Archelaus in Greece. This task he successfully accomplished, reduced Amphipolis, which had at first defied his arms, and having thus struck terror into the Macedonians, advanced without further opposition, through that country and Thessaly, into Phocis. Here he at first laid siege to Elatea, but was foiled in his attacks, and relinquished the enterprize, in order to form a junction with Archelaus in Boeotia. This object lie effected: but though the two generals now found themselves at the head of a formidable host,