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Syria are used by the ancients ; however, we think it most probable that by " the land of the As­syrians" («/ rrj rtav 'A.<rffvpi(av yfj) Tatian means the country east of the Tigris ; but his mode of expression affords some ground to think that though born in the land of Assyria, he was not of Assyrian race ; and his name has some ap­pearance of being Roman. He appears to have followed the profession of a sophist, or teacher of rhetoric ; and he was perhaps a teacher of phi­losophy also (comp. Tatian. Orat. ad Graec. c. ii. and Ivi. ; Euseb. H. E. iv. 16 ; Hieron. De Viris Illustr. c. 29 ; Theodoret. /. c.), though Valesius {Not. in Euseb. L c.) contends earnestly against the supposition. He certainly acquired a considerable knowledge of Greek literature. He travelled over many countries, and appears to have been engaged in a variety of pursuits (rexycus koi sirwoiais e'7/cuprjcras TroAAcus, Orat. ad Graec. c. Ivi.) until, at last, he came to Rome. He had probably im­bibed the doctrines of the Platonic philosophy (comp. Orat. ad Graec. c. xix. and Worth's note •in /oc.), but he was dissatisfied with the hollowness ^of the professions of the philosophers of his day, and 'disgusted with the cruelty and impurity of the wor­ship both of the Greeks and Romans (Ora$. ad Graec. cc. xliii—xlvi.); and his mind was anxiously longing for something more ennobling, when he met with the Scriptures of the Old Testament. By the perusal of these, his conversion to Christianity was effected. Whether his connection with Justin Martyr, of whom, according to the testimony of Irenaeus (Adv. Haeres. lib. i. c. 31), Epiphanius (Haeres. xlvi.), Jerome (7. c.), Philastrius (De Haeres. c. 48), 'and Theodoret (L c.), he was the hearer or disciple, was previous to his conversion or subsequent to it, is not clear.

During Justin's life, Tatian remained in con­nection with the Catholic church ; but after Justin's death he embraced views of a Gnostic character, with which probably the notions imbibed during his early residence in the East disposed him to sympa­thize. Whether he had been previously restrained by the influence of Justin from embracing those views, is not clear, though Irenaeus, Jerome, and Epipha­nius seem to intimate that he had. He appears to have remained for .a time after Justin's death in communion with the church. Tillemont thinks that after Justin's death many of his disciples, among them Rhodon [rhodon] placed themselves under Tatian's instruction ; but though Rhodon himself (apud Euseb. H. E. v. 13) states that he was a disciple of Tatian, it does not follow that this was after Justin's death. Like Justin, Tatian engaged in controversies with the philosophers of his day, at­tacking them on the corruptions of heathenism, and pointing out the superiority of the Jewish and Christian religions. He was involved in a dispute with the Cynic Crescens [crescens], whom he charges with having plotted his death, as well as that of Justin. [justinus, No. 1.]

His embracing, at least his avowal of his here­tical opinions, was apparently not very long after Justin's death, otherwise we cannot account for the general impression that he had been kept from heresy by Justin's influence. He does not appear to have broached his obnoxious sentiments at Rome. According to Epiphanius, he returned into the East, and there .imbibed and promulgated them. The statement of Epiphanius (/. c.), fol­lowed by Josephus [ joseph us, No. 12] in his



flypomnesticon, that they were broached in Meso­potamia, leads to the conclusion that Tatian settled in that province ; but when he further states that they were embraced by some persons at Antioch, the capital of Syria, and spread from thence into Cilicia and Pisidia, we cannot determine whether this was through the personal exertions and teach­ing of Tatian, or whether through some of his dis­ciples. We have no further account of him ; and neither the time nor place of his death is known. In fact, the chronology of his whole life is un­certain ; we only know that he was contemporary with Justin, and was at Rome before and at the time of that martyr's death, the date of which, as we have shown elsewhere [justinus, No. 1], is by no means determined, but may be probably fixed in or near a. d. 166 or 167.

The followers of Tatian constituted a sect, de­signated from him Tatiani. (Epiphan. Haeres. xlvi.; Augustin. Haeres. xxv.) They appear to have been nearly identical with the Encratitae (the name is variously written 'EyKparels, Irenaeus, Adv. Haeres. lib. i. c. 30, 'EyKpartrai, Epiphan. Haeres. xlvii.; or 'EyKparyTai, Clem. Alex. Strom. lib. i. c. 15, Paedagog. lib. ii. c. 2) and with the Severiani, who derived their name from Severus, a contemporary of Tatian. [severus, Greek, lite­rary and ecclesiastical, No. 3.] These sects were also known by the name of 'TSpoTrapao'TaTcu, "• Hy-droparastatae," or " Offerers of water," from their use of water in the Eucharist. From this last peculiarity they were called by some of the Latin fathers (Augustin./Jaeres. Ixiv.; Philastrius, Haeres. Ixxvii.) " Aquarii." Tillemont has collected a number of other names which he supposes to have been given them. The tenets of the Tatiani and Encratitae and Severiani, whether these names de­note one sect, or different, but kindred sects, par­took of the usual character of the Gnostic body to which they belonged. Tatian held the doctrine of Aeons, which he is said to have derived from Valentinusor Marcion (Philastrius, Haeres.x[vm.\ and to have given further development to it. He distinguished the Demiurgus, the Creator of the world and giver of the Mosaic law, from the Su­preme and Benignant God, from whom the Gospel came. Epiphanius (a not very trustworthy autho­rity), ascribes to the Severiani the belief that be­side the Supreme Being there was "a great ruler of the powers" named 'IaASa§ac60 " laldabaoth," or '2a€ad>0, " Sabaoth " (an obvious corruption of the " Jehovah-Sabaoth " of the Jewish Scriptures), of whom 6 AtaSoAos, " the devil," was the son; and that the devil, being by the Supreme God cast down to the earth in the form of a serpent, pro­duced the vine, the tendrils of which indicated their origin by their serpent-like form: they ascribed also to the devil the formation of woman, and of the lower part of the man. The " ruler of the powers," laldabaoth, is apparently the Demi> urgus of Tatian; but how far the other opinions described were held by him is not clear'; it is, however, remarkable that he and his followers abstained from wine and animal food, and con­demned marriage. But what especially shocked the piety and charity of the Catholics was Tatian's affirming, the damnation of Adam, a " blasphemy " which is said to have' originated with him, and drew upon him especial odium.

The sects of the Tatiani and Severiani are said by Epiphanius to have been nearly extinct in his

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