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950

SYMEON.

cisively and to refuse to recognize Peter the Fuller, who had regained the see of Antioch for the last time, about a. d. 485 [petrus, No. 17] ; it led also to the deposition, for unfaithfulness and undue favour to the Monophysite party, of the presbyters Misenus and Vitalis, who had been sent by the Pope to Constantinople. (Evagrius, H. E. iii. 21.)

3. Of antioch. [No. 27.]

4. Of constantinople. [No. 16.]

5. OfCTESIPHON. [No. 26.]

6. Metropolitan of euchaita in Pontus, a writer whose date is not exactly ascertained, but who probably lived towards the end of the ninth century. There are extant in MS. two of his letters, Epistolae duae ad Joannem Monachum, from which Allatius has given two or three very brief citations. (Al­latius, De Symeon. Scriptis, p. 179 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. pp. 296, 712 ; Cave, Flist. Litt. vol. ii. Dissert, prima, p. 18. folio, Oxford, 1740—43 ; Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, vol. i. col. 545.)

7. grammaticus. Daniel de Nessel in his Catalogus BibliotJiecae Caesaraeae, pars iv. p. 77, fol. Vienna, 1690, describes a Greek MS. in that library as containing Simeonis Grammatici Etymo-logicon : the work is arranged in alphabetical order and has never been published. The MS. which was torn and imperfect, is not noticed, so far as we have been able to trace, by Kollar, in his edition of the Commentarius of Lambecius. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. pp. 379, 604.)

8. haeresiargha s. massalianus. In an appendix to the Panoplia of Euthymius Zigabenus [euthymius zigabenus] described by Lambecius, who printed some portions of it (Commentarius de BibliofL Caesaraea, lib. s. vol. iii. col. 424, &c.), and published, with a Latin version, by Tollius (Insignia Itinerarii Italici, p. 106, &c.), are a string of anathemas against various Massalians or Bogo-milans, among whom are given in one group Dadoes, Sabas, Adelpheios, Hermas, and Symeon. These do not belong to the age of Alexius Comnenus, to which Euthymius belonged, and in which the anathemas appear to have been uttered, but to a much earlier period, for in an account of the Council of Side in Pamphylia, held in or about a. d. 381, and which account is preserved by Photius, (Bibliotli. Cod. 52), Dadoes, Sabas, Adelpheios, and Symeon are mentioned as contemporaries of the council and founders of the Massalian or Euchite sect. Theodoret also (Haeret. Fabul. Compend. iv. 11) mentions them. In the older editions of Photius the name of Symeon was written ^jueo'wi/rjs, " Se-mesones," but Bekker in his edition gives it (on the authority of a manuscript in the library of Cardinal Bessarion, now of St. Mark, at Venice) *2,vfjL€(iwris, Symeones, which is the form used by Theodoret (/. c.). Lambecius and Tollius give it as Sinewy, Symeon. The sect of which he was one of the leaders had its rise in the reign of the Em­peror Constantius II., apparently in the parts of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor adjacent to the Eu­phrates. They were a very enthusiastic sect, who placed the whole business of life in prayer and re­ligious exercises, in which they gave themselves tip to unwonted and uncontrolled excesses. Their names, Massaliani or Messaliani or Mesaliani (MaacraXiavol or MefforaXtavo}, or Meo'aAicw'of), and Euchitae (eu%?tcu), derived the first from the Syriac, the second from the Greek language, were significant of their characteristic practice ; they meant " praying people."

SYMEON.

There was another Symeon, an haeresiarch, who burnt to death with many of his followers for heresy in the time of Justinian II. Photius gives to him the vague and often misapplied epithet of a Manichaean. (Phot. Narraiio in epitome de Ma-nichaeis repullidantibus, apud Montfauc. BibliotJi, Coislin. pp. 360, 361.)

9. hieromonachus. [Nos. 23, 25.]

10. HlEROSOLYMITANUS, Or of JERUSALEM

(1). Symeon or Simon, son of Cleophas, and, ac­cording to general belief, kinsman of Jesus Christ, was, according to the ecclesiastical historians, the second bishop of the Church of Jerusalem, the Apostle James, son of Alpheius, having been the first. Some of the later Greeks represent Symeon as the son of Joseph (husband of the Virgin Mary) by a former wife. The tradition of his appoint­ment is given by Eusebius (H. E. iii. 11). After holding his bishopric for many years Symeon was put to death for his faith as a Christian, and because he was descended from David. He was a hundred and twenty years old at the time of his martyrdom, which took place during the persecution in the reign of Trajan, and while Atticus, the consular, was governor of Syria. Eusebius, in his Chronicon, places the martyrdom of Symeon in the tenth year of Trajan, the third year of Olympiad 221, in the fourth consulship of Sosius and third of Sura, A. d. 107. Some critics, including Bishop Lloyd of St. Asaph, Dodwell, and Pagi, bring down his death to a. d. 116. Symeon is worshipped as a Saint both by the Latin and Greek Churches, by the former on the 18th of February, by the latter on the 27th of April. He was succeeded in his bishopric by Justus. (Euseb. H. E. iii. 11, 32 ; Hegesippus, apud Euseb. II. cc. ; Euseb. Ckronicon ; Chronicon Paschale; Ada Sanctorum Februar. ad diem xviii. vol. iii. p. 53 ; Le .Quien, Oriens Christian, vol. iii. col. 140.)

11. hierosolymitanus (2). Toward the close of the eleventh century, the patriarchate of Jeru­salem was held by Symeon or Simon II. In the Latin catalogues of the bishops of Jerusalem he is called Simon ; but the Latin historians of the crusades generally write his name Symeon or Simeon. He succeeded Euthymius, but in what year is not known : he was already patriarch in A. d. 1094, when he had many conversations with Peter the Hermit, then on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, on the deplorable state of the Christians in the East ; and these conversations were among the means of exciting the compassion and zeal of Peter, and eventually of producing the crusades. On the arrival of the crusaders in Syria, and the formation of the siege of Antioch by them, in a. d. 1098, Symeon, terrified by the threats of the Turks of Jerusalem, fled to the island of Cyprus. From this island he maintained a friendly inter­course with the leaders of the crusaders, sending them presents of fruits, wine, poultry, and such things as he could. He died just about the time of the capture of Jerusalem, and the vacancy caused by his death being filled up by the crusaders with a patriarch of the Latin Church, and by the native Christians with one of the Greek Church, gave occasion to a long continued schism and a succession of rival claimants of the two Churches. An extant treatise De Azymis adversus Latinos, from which Allatius (De Symeon. Scriptis, p. 180) gives a pas­sage, is ascribed, and apparently with good reason, | to our Symeon. Le Quien, indeed, doubts whether

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