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The first edition of Strabo was by Aldus, Ve­nice, 1516 ; and this text was followed in the editions of Hopper and Heresbach, Basle, 1549, and of Xylander (Holzmann), Basle, 1571, with a new Latin version. The next edition of the text was by Casaubon, who used several MSS., but it is uncertain if they exist.' There are two editions of the text by Casaubon, Geneva, 1587, and Paris, 1620, fol, accompanied by a Latin translation and a commentary. Casaubon, who was only twenty-eight years of age when he edited this work, did a great deal for Strabo, though he could have done more, if he had taken more time about it. His commentary is pretty complete for the first books, but it gradually becomes more meagre as he approached the end of his labours. The edition of 1620 does not differ materially from that of 1587, and it is that which is generally referred to by the page. No new edition of Strabo appeared for a long time, and the critics were contented with making occasional cor­rections of certain passages and incidental remarks. The conjectures of Thomas Tyrwhitt, London, 1783, are valuable.

The reprint of Casaubon's edition by Alme-loveen, Amsterdam, 1707, is useful for the col­lection of the notes of various critics. A new edition' of Strabo was commenced by Brequigny, but only three books appeared, Paris, 1763. He left behind him a French translation with notes in Latin, which was used by the French translators of Strabo.

The seventh edition of Strabo, that of Falconer, Oxford, 1807, 2 vols. fol., was begun after the edition of Siebenkees, but finished before it. It is a reprint from Almeloveen, and contains no im­provement of the text, though there were means for doing this, in the collection of five MSS. by Villebrune, and in other resources. This edition contains the collation of the Eton MS., that of the Escurial, and two Medicean MSS. ; also the conjectures of Tyrwhitt, and some remarks of Villebrune and Falconer. There are seventeen maps intended for the illustration of Strabo.

The eighth edition of Strabo was commenced by Professor J. P. Siebenkees, Leipzig, 1811. He only lived to complete the first six books in 2 vols. 8vo.; and the work was finished by Professor Tzschucke in 1811. Siebenkees did his part very ill; but the edition improved greatly after Tzschucke commenced his labours. He made, however, few corrections, having a religious respect for the readings of the MS., and his text differs little from that of the edition of Casaubon. Friede-mann added as a continuation and seventh part of this work the commentary of Casaubon, and a very complete critical apparatus.

The ninth edition of Strabo was by the learned Greek of Chios, Adamantios Koray, which ap­peared at Paris, 1815—1818, 4 vols. 8vo. This was really the first critical edition of Strabo that was worthy of the name, though he is perhaps justly blamed for being sometimes too bold in sub­stituting the conjectures of others or his own for MSS. readings which ought not to be rejected. The first volume contains a map to illustrate the geographical system of Strabo, by Gosselin.

The tenth edition, which is not yet completed, is by Gustavus Kramer, and is by far the most valuable that has yet appeared. The two volumes which have been published (Berlin, 1844 and



1847) contain books i.—xii. The text of this edition is founded on a new collation of MSS., and is furnished with a critical commentary.

The first Latin translation of Strabo appeared forty-five years before the Greek text of Aldus. Guarini of Verona translated the first ten books, and Gregorio of Tiferno the remainder. The next version, that of Xylander, is much superior, and is printed in both editions of Casaubon, in that of Almeloveen, and in the Siebenkees - Tzschucke edition, with some corrections. Strabo was well translated into Italian from a MS. by Bonaccioli, Venice, 1552 or 1562. A German translation by A. J. Penzel appeared at Lemgo, 1775, &c., 4 vols.; but it is said to have little merit.

A French translation of Strabo appeared at Paris, 1805—1819, in five quarto volumes, with the title " G6ographie de Strabon, traduite du Grec en Francois," and accompanied by copious critical and other notes. It was translated by La Porte du Theil and Koray, with the exception of Du Theft's share, which was left unfinished by his death in 1815, and which was completed by Le-tronne, who translated the sixteenth and seven­teenth books. Gosselin added the geographical ex­planations, and five maps to illustrate the systems of Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Polybius, and Strabo, with respect to the inhabited portion of the earth. The notes of Du Theil are sometimes exceedingly diffuse.

An Italian translation by Ambrosoli was pub­lished at Milan, 1828, 4^vols. 8vo. and 4to.

The best translation of Strabo is the new Ger­ man version by C. J. Groskurd, 3 vols. 8vo., Berlin and Stettin, 1831—1833. The fourth volume, Berlin, 1834, contains a very complete Index, which is adapted to the second edition of Casaubon and all subsequent editions, except the small Tauchnitz edition, the only one that has not the paging of Casaubon's edition in the margin. The translation of Groskurd is made from the cor­ rected text of Strabo, and he has availed himself of the labours of all his predecessors. In addition to this he has bestowed great pains on his version, which is a most valuable addition to the literature of his country: those who occupy themselves with the history of geography, and with ancient geo­ graphy in particular, may now ascertain the meaning of Strabo, so far as it is possible to ascertain it. The author has added many valuable notes at the bottom of the page. To say that such a work cannot be free from error, is not to disparage it. A comparison of many parts with the original has convinced the writer of this article of the fidelity, diligence, and sound knowledge of the learned translator. The translation is not dedicated to a king or any great person, for we presume that the author had not imperial or royal patronage, like the French translators of Strabo. It is dedicated to nobody, — to the Manes of Strabo. The preface and introduction contain a dissertation on Strabo, his life and writings, which, with Heeren's Essay, " De Fontibus Geographicorum Strabonis," Gottingen 1823, and the Geography of Strabo,' is the chief authority for this article. [G. L.]

STRABO, ACI'LIUS, accused by the inha­bitants of Gyrene in a. d. 59 (Tac. Ann. xiv. 18).

STRABO, FA'NNIUS. 1. C. fannius stra­bo, was consul b. c. 161 with M. Valerius Messalla. In their consulship the rhetoricians were expelled from Rome (Gell. xv. 11; Suet, de Khet. 1). Fan-

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