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874

SOPHOCLES.

most useful edition for the ordinary student is that by Wunder, in Jacobs and Host's Bibliotheca Graeca, containing the text, with critical and ex­planatory notes and introductions, Gothae et Er-furdt, 1831—1846, 2 vols. 8vo. in 7 parts, and with a supplemental part of emendations to the Trachiniae, Grimae, 1841, 8vo.

For a list of the editions of separate plays, and of the editions not noticed above, the reader is referred to Hoffmanu's Lexicon Bibliographicum Scriptorium Graecorum.

Among the numerous translations of Sophocles, very few have been at all successful. There are English versions by Franklin, Lond. 1758 ; Potter, Lond. 1788; and Dale, 1824. The best German translations are those of Solger, Berlin, 1808,1824, 2 vols. 8vo.,and Fritz, Berlin, 1843, 8vo. Among the translations of separate plays, those of the Antigone, by Bockh and Donaldson, interpaged in their respective editions, deserve notice ; Bockh, Berlin, 1843, 8vo.; Donaldson, London, 1848, 8vo.

A nearly complete list of the works illustrating Sophocles will be found in Hoffmann's Lexicon. They are far too numerous to be mentioned here ; but it would be wrong to pass over the one, which is the most useful of them all for understanding the language of the author, namely Ellendt's Lexicon Sophocleum, Regimont. Pruss. (Konigsberg) 1835, 2 vols. 8vo.

2. The son of Ariston and grandson of the elder Sophocles, was also an Athenian tragic poet. The love of his grandfather towards him has been al­ready mentioned; and it cannot be doubted that one chief way in which Sophocles displayed his affection was by endeavouring to train up his grandson as the inheritor of his own skill in the art of tragedy. We have no definite statement of his age, but he was probably under twenty at the time of his grandfather's death, as he did not begin to exhibit his own dramas till about ten years after that time, namely in b. c. 396. (Diod xiv. 53, where 2o</>oK/Vfjs o 5o<£oKAeoi>s must either be corrected by adding viwvbs or vinous, or must be understood to mean the grandson, and not the son).

He had previously, in b. c. 401, brought out the Oedipus at Colonus (Argum. ad Oed. Col.}, and We may safely assume that this was not the only one of his grandfather's dramas which he exhibited. There is much difficulty as to the proper reading of the numbers of plays and victories ascribed to him. According to the different readings, he exhibited 40 or 11 dramas, and gained 12, 11, or 7 prizes. (Suid. s. v. ; Diod. /. c.; comp. Clinton, F. PL vol. ii. p. xxxv. e.) All that we know of his tragedies is contained in a passage of Clemens Alexandrinus (Protrept. 30, p. 26, Potter), who refers to statements made in three of them respect­ing the mere humanity of the Dioscuri. It is, however, a very probable conjecture that, since Aristophanes of Byzantium pronounced 27 of the plays which were extant in his time under the name of the great Sophocles to be spurious, some of these may have been the productions of his grand­son. Suidas also ascribes elegies to the younger Sophocles. (Welcker, die Griech. Trag. p. 979 ; Kayser, Hist. Crit. Trag. Graec. pp. 79—81 ; Wagner, Pott. Trag. Graec. Frag, in Didot's Bibliotheca, p. 78.)

3. Suidas also mentions an Athenian tragic and lyric poet of this name, who lived, later than the poets of the Tragic Pleiad, and to whom fifteen

SOPHON1SBA.

dramas were ascribed (Suid. s. v.} The name also occurs on the Orchomenian inscription.

4. An Athenian orator, whose oration for Eue-temon is quoted by Aristotle. (Rhet. i. 15.) Ruhnken supposes that it was he, and not the poet, who was one of the Probuli, and that he Avas the same as the Sophocles who is mentioned by Xenophon (Hellen. ii. 3. § 2) as one of the Thirty Tyrants. (Hist. Crit. Orat. Graec., No. viii.)

5. A grammarian, who wrote commentaries on the works of Apollonius Rhodius. (Schol. ad Aris-toph. Nub. 397 ; Steph. Byz. s. vv. "AGatyvos and

6. The son of Amphicleides, a native of Sunium, was the author of a decree expelling the philoso­ phers from the Attic territory, or, as others say, forbidding any one, on pain of death, to preside over a school of philosophy, without the consent of the senate and people. After a year the decree was revoked, and Sophocles was fined five talents. (Diog. Laert. v. 38 ; Pollux, ix. 42 ; Ath. xiii. p. 610, e. f . ; Alexis, ap. Ath. I.e.} From the fragment of the 'ittttcvs of Alexis preserved by Athenaeus (L c.) it is evident that the law was passed at end of 01. 115 or the beginning of 01. 116, b.c. 316 (Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Graec. p. 394). [P. S.]

SOPHONIAS (2o</><m'as), a Greek monk who wrote commentaries on Aristotle. Fabricius con­ jectures that he was the same Sophonias to whom one of the epistles of Simon of Constantinople, pro­ bably the same with Simon of Thebes [simon, No. 22), is addressed. If this conjecture be admitted he must be placed about the end of the fourteenth cen­ tury. The following works of his are extant in MS. : — 1. In Aristotelis Categorias de Homonymis, Syn- onymis, Paronymis, Heteronymis, Poly ony mis, fyc. (Labbe, Nova Biblioth. MStorum Librorum, p. 1 15.) 2. Hapd(ppao~is els to irepl ityvxfis tov <ro</>a?raTou Kvplou 3,o(f)oviov, Paraphrasis sapientissimi Sopho- niae in Aristotelis Libras tres de Anima (Lambec. Commentar. de Biblioth. Caesaraea, vol. vii. col. 208, ed. Kollar, fol. Vienna, 1766, &c. ; Bandini, Catal. Codd. Graec. Laurent. Medic, vol. i. p. 297, vol. iii. coll. 19, 278 ; Hardt. Catalog. Codd. MStorum Graec. Biblioth. Reg. Bavar. vol. iv. p. . 242). Morelli (Biblioth. MSta Graeca et Latina, vol. i. p. 128, comp. Graec. D. Marci Biblioth. p. 116, fol. Venet. 1740) speaks of a MS., Aristotelis Praedicame7itorum Paraphrasis, in the Library of St. Mark at Venice, which is anonymous, but is, he says, commonly attributed to the monk Sopho­ nias : it is apparently only another MS. of the work No. 1. No. 2 is in a Florentine MS. ascribed, but erroneously, to Simplicius. Beside these works, there is a MS. in the Library of St. Mark, containing, — 3. Toy o-oQwraTov ^ova-^ov Kvptov l%o(f)ovlov /xeAeTTj, IlauAos sv 'AQijvais §77^17- yopfav, Sophoniae sapientissimi Monachi Dedamatio : Paulus in A thenis Concionem habens ad Populum (Graeca D. Marci Biblioth. p. 131). This last work is not mentioned by Fabricius. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. pp. 209, 236, vol. xi. pp. 334,714.) [J.C.M.]

SOPHONISBA (^oQovurSa or 2o</>oVi§a, see Sch weigh, ad Appian. Pun. 27), a daughter of the Carthaginian general, Hasdrubal, the son of Gisco. She had been betrothed by her father, at a very early age, to the Numidian prince Masinissa, but at a subsequent period Hasdrubal being desirous to gain over Syphax, the rival monarch of Numi-

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