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SOCRATES.

of the Homb'ousian party over the Arian and Macedonian parties, in the reign of Theodosius the Great a. d. 379—395 (Lib. v.) : the contention of John Chrysostom with his opponents, and the other ecclesiastical incidents of the reign of Arcadius a. d. 395—408 (Lib. vi.): and the contentions of Christianity with the expiring remains of hea­thenism, the Nestorian controversy, and the coun­cil of Ephesus, with other events of the reign of the younger Theodosius, a. d. 408 to 439, in which latter year the history closes, occupy the remainder of the work. This division of the work into seven books, according to the reigns of the successive emperors, was made by Socrates himself (Comp. ii. 1). In the first two books he followed, in his first edition, the ecclesiastical history of Rufinus ; but this part, as already montioned, he had to write for his second edition. The materials of the remaining books were derived partly from Rufinus, partly from other writers, and partly from the oral account of persons who had been per­sonally cognizant of matters, and who survived to the time of the writer. Socrates has inserted a num­ber of letters from the emperors and from prelates and councils, creeds, and other documents which are of value, both in themselves, and as authenti­cating his statements. He aimed not at a pompous phraseology, ov <ppdffeu>s oynov typovri^ovres (Lib. i. 1), but at perspicuity (Lib. iii. 1), and his style, as Photius remarks (Biblioth. Cod. 28), presents nothing worthy of notice. The inaccuracy with re­spect to points of doctrine with which the same critic charges him (dAAa /ecu \v rots Soj/jt-affiv ov \iav eVrlz/ dKpigrjs) may be taken as a corroboration of what has been said concerning the comparative liberality of his temper. His diligence and general impartiality are admitted by the best critics, Va-lesius, Cave, Fabricius, &c. " His impartiality," says Mr. Waddington (Hist, of the Church, part ii. c. 7, ad fin.), " is so strikingly displayed as to render his orthodoxy questionable to Baronius, the celebrated Roman Catholic historian ; but Valesius, in his life, has clearly shown that there is no reason for such a suspicion. We may men­tion another principle which he has followed, which, in the mind of Baronius, may have tended to- confirm the notion of his heterodoxy—that he is invariably adverse to every form of persecution on account of religious opinions—Sicoyjuoz/ Se Aeyco to oiroaovv rapdrr^iv tovs riffvxa^ovra.?—' and I call it persecution to offer any description of mo­lestation to those who are quiet.' Some credu­lity respecting miraculous stories is his principal failing."

The first printed edition of the Greek text of the Historia Ecdesiastica of Socrates was that of Rob. Stephanus (Estienne), fol. Paris 1544. The volume contained also the ecclesiastical histories of the other early Greek writers, Eusebius (with his Life of Constantine), Sozomen, Theodoret, Eva-grius, and the fragments of Theodore Anagnostes or Lector. It was again printed with the Latin version of Christopherson, and with the other Greek ecclesiastical historians just mentioned, also accompanied by the version of Christopherson, except in the case of Theodore Lector, of whom Musculus's version was given, fol. Geneva 1612; but the standard edition is that of Hen. Valesius, who published, as part of his series of the ancient Greek ecclesiastical historians, the histories of So­crates and Sozomen, with a new Latin version and

SOCRATES.

valuable notes, fol. Paris 1668. His edition was reprinted at Mentz, fol. 1677, and the Latin version by itself at Paris the same year. The re­mainder of the Mentz edition was issued with a new title page, Amsterdam, 1695. The text, version, and notes of Valesius were reprinted with some additional Variorum notes, under the care of Wil­liam Reading, in the second volume of the Greek ecclesiastical historians, fol. Cambridge 1720. This edition of Reading was reprinted at Turin, 3 vols. fol. 1748. There is a reprint of the text of Va­lesius, but without the version and notes, 8vo. Oxford, 1844. There have been several Latin versions, as those of Musculus, fol. Basil. 1549, 1557, 1594, John Christopherson (Christophor-sonus), bishop of Chichester, fol. Paris, 1571, Co-logn, 1570, 1581 ; and (revised by Grynaeus, and with notes by him), fol. Basil. 1570 and 1611 ; and in the BibliotJieca Patrum, vol. v. part 2, fol. Cologn 1618, and vol. vii. fol. Lyon 1677. There are a French translation by Cousin, made from the Latin version of Valesius, 4to. Paris, 1675, and English translations by Meredith Hanmer, with the other Greek ecclesiastical historians, folio, Lond. 1577, 1585, 1650, and by Samuel Parker (with translations of Sozomen and Theodoret), 2 vols. 8vo. 1707. The latter, which is an abridged trans­lation, has been repeatedly reprinted. (Valesius, De Vita et Scriptis Socratis et Sozomeni, prefixed to his edition of their histories ; Vossius, De His-toricis Graecis, lib. ii. c. 20 ; Fabric. Bibl. Grace. vol. vii. p. 423, &c.; Cave, Hist. Lift, ad ann. 439, vol. i. p. 427, ed. Oxford, 1740—1743; Dupin, Nbuvelle Bibliotheque des Auleurs Ecdes. vol. iv. or vol. iii. part ii. p. 78, ed. Mons. 1691 ; Ceillier, Auteurs Sacres, vol. xiii. p. 669 ; Lardner, Credi­bility, &c. part ii. vol. xi. p. 450 ; Ittigius, De Bi-blioth. Patrum ; Watt. Bibliotheca Britannica ; Wad­dington, Hist, of tlie Church, I. c.) [J. C. M.] SO'CRATES, minor literary persons.

1. A tragic actor at Athens in the time of De­mosthenes. (Dem de Cor. p. 314 ; comp. simy> lus.)

2. Of Argos, an historical writer, whose time is unknown. He wrote a Trepi-jfy/jtm "Apyovs. (Diog. Lae'rt. ii. 47, and Menag. ad loc.; Schol. ad Find. var. loc.; Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 45 ; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. ii. p. 689 ; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 499, ed. Westermann.)

3. Of Bithynia, a Peripatetic philosopher. (Diog. /. c.}

4. An epigrammatic poet, of whom nothing is known beyond the mention of his name by Dio­genes Laertius (/. c.). There is a single epigram in the Greek Anthology, among the Arithmetical Problems, under the name of Socrates. (Anth. Pal. xiv. 1 ; Brunck. Anal. vol. ii. p. 477 ; Jacobs, Anth. Graec, vol. iii. p. 181, Comm. vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 335.)

5. Of Cos, the author of a work entitled e-/rt-K\ri<reis drew. (Diog. Lae'rt. I.e.'; Schol. ad Apoll. KJiod. i. 966 ; Ath. iii. p. Ill, b. ; Schol..ad Aris-toph. Eq. 959.) He is probably the writer whose treatise Trept ooiuv is quoted by Plutarch (de Is. et Osir. 35, p. 364, f.). The exact meaning of the phrase, eTTi/cArjo-ets ftecov, is doubtful. Vossius ex­plains it as prayers to the gods, but Menagius contends that it rather means the epithets or sur­names which were assigned to the several gods for various reasons. (Fabric. I.e.; Vossius, I. c.; Menag. ad Diog, I. c.)

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