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SILANUS.

Mithridates, the son of Rhodobatus, set up in the Academy. (Diog. Laert. iii. 2.)

Among the actual portraits of Silanion, the most celebrated appears to have been that of the statuary Apollodorus, who was so habitually dissatisfied with his own works, that he frequently broke them in pieces. The vexation of the disappointed artist was so vividly expressed in Silanion 's statue, that Pliny says "nee hominem ex acre fecit, sed iracun-diam'1'' (I.e. § 21). Pliny also mentions his statue of a superintendent of the palaestra exercising the athletes. He made also three statues of Olympic victors ; namely Satyrus of Elis, and Telestes and Demaratus of Messene. (Paus. vi. 4. § 3, 14. §§

Probably this Silanion was the same as the one whom Vitruvius (vii. praef. § 14) mentions among those who wrote praecepta symmetriarum ; for, although that phrase no doubt refers especially to the proportions of the architectural orders, yet it must also be understood as including the wider subject of proportion in art generally, as is evident both from the mention of Euphranor in the list, and also from the manner in which Vitruvius discusses the subject of architectural proportions in connection with the laws of proportion derived from the human figure (i. 2, iii. 1). [P. S.]

SILANUS (2iAaz/o's), an Ambracian sooth­sayer, who accompanied Cyrus the Younger in his expedition against his brother Artaxerxes, in b. c. 401. For a successful prediction Cyrus rewarded him with 3000 darics, or 10 talents. This money Silanus carefully preserved throughout the cam­paign and subsequent retreat, and was very anxious to return with it to his country. Accordingly, when Xenophon consulted him at Cotyora, on the plan which he had formed of founding a Greek colony on the coast of the Euxine, he revealed the project to the Cyreans, and did all in his power to thwart it. On this Xenophon publicly professed to have abandoned the design, and proposed that no one should be permitted to remain behind the rest of the army, or to sail away before it. The latter part of this proposition was most disagreeable to Silanus, who loudly remonstrated against it, but to no purpose, the soldiers threatening to punish him, should they catch him in any at­tempt to depart by himself. Not long after, however, he contrived to make his escape in a ship which he hired at Heracleia. (Xen. Anab. i. 7. § 18, v. 6. §§ 16, 18, 29, 34, vi. 4. § 13.) [E. E.]

SILANUS, the name of several Roman fami­lies, appears to be merely a lengthened form of Silus, which occurs as a cognomen in the Sergia and Terentia gentes [ silus], and is not con-, nected with the Greek name Silanus. Instead of the Roman name Silanus we frequently find in manuscripts Syllanus and Sillanus.

SILANUS, A'PPIUS. [silanus, junius, No. 11.]

SILANUS, CA'SSIUS, the avunculus of Ger-manicus Caesar (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 7. s. 18).

SILANUS, CRE'TICUS, as he is called by Tacitus, is mentioned as governor of Syria in a. d. 16, but was removed from 'the government by Tiberius in the following year on account of the connection of his family with Germanicus, inas­much as a daughter of Silanus had been betrothed to Nero, the eldest of the children of Germanicus (Tac. Ann. ii. 4, 43). From his names Creticus Silanus it has been conjectured that he originally

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SILANUS.

belonged to the Junia gens, but was adopted into the Caecilia gens. It has been further sup­posed that he is the same person as the consul of a. d. 9 (Dion Cass. Iv. 30). [metellus, No. 29 ] In that case his full name would have been Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus Silanus.

SILANUS, JU'NIUS. 1. M. junius sila­nus, took the command of Neapolis, at the wish of the inhabitants, in the second Punic war, b. c. 216, in order to defend it against Hannibal. In b. c. 212 he was praetor, and obtained Etruria as his province, where he was chiefly employed in purchasing corn. In B. c. 210 he accompanied P. Scipio to Spain, and served under him with great distinction during the whole of the war in that country. His most brilliant exploit was the defeat of Hanno and Mago in Celtiberia in b. c. 207. When Scipio quitted Spain in the following year, he left Silanus in command of the army till the arrival of his successor. In b. c. 196 Silanus fell in battle against the Boii, where he fought under the consul M. Marcellus. (Liv. xxiii. 15, xxv. 2, 3, xxvi. 1, 19, xxviii. 1, 2 ; Polyb. x. 6, xi, 20, 23, 26, 33 ; Appian, Hisp. 28, 32).

2. D. junius silanus, was commissioned by the senate about b. c. 146, in consequence of his knowledge of the Punic language, to translate into Latin the twenty-eight books of Mago on Agricul­ture. (Plin. H. N. xviii. 3. s. 5.)

3. D. junius silanus manlianus, a son of the jurist T. Manlius Torquatus, consul B. c. 165, but adopted by a D. Junius Silanus. He was praetor b. c. 142, and obtained Macedonia as his province, where he was guilty of so many acts of robbery and oppression, that the inhabitants accused him before the senate on his return to Rome in b. c. 140. The senate referred the investigation of the charges to his own father Torquatus at the request of the latter. Torquatus condemned his son, and banished him from his presence ; and when Sila­nus hanged himself in grief, his father would not attend his funeral. (Cic. de Fin. i. 7 ; Liv. Epit. 54 ; Val. Max. v. 8. § 3.)

4. M. junius silanus, consul b. c. 109, with M. Caecilius Metellus, fought in this year against the Cimbri in Transalpine Gaul, and was defeated. He was accused in b. c. 104, by the tribune Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, out of revenge, because he had injured an hereditary friend of Ahenobarbus. The latter charged him with having fought with­out any commission from the people (injussu populi), and with having thus been the principal cause of the calamities which the Romans had ex­perienced in this war ; but he was acquitted almost unanimously, as only two tribes out of the thirty-five voted for his condemnation. Cicero (Brut. 35) praises his oratorical powers. (Liv. Ep. 65 ; Sail. Jug. 43 ; Eutrop. iv. 11. s. 27 ; Flor. iii. 3. § 4 ; Cic. Div. in Caecil. 20, Verr. ii. 47 ; Ascon. in Cornel pp. 68, 80, ed. Orelli.)

5. D. junius silanus, probably a younger son of No. 4, was the step-father of M. Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, having married his mother Servilia. He was aedile about b. c. 70, when he exhibited very magnificent games, and notwith­standing was unsuccessful in his application for the consulship for the year b. c. 64. He was elected consul in the comitia held in the summer of b. c. 63, and in consequence of his being consul designatus was first asked for his opi­nion bv Cicero in the debate in the senate on the

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