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On this page: Servilius Damocrates – Servilius Nonianus – Servius – Servius Maurus Honoratu

794

SERVIUS.

father was alive, who had sat in the curule chair, inasmuch as he was ignorant of the existence of his father (Liv. xxx. 19, comp. xxvii. 1). No other ancient writer mentions any law which forbade such an election : the conjectures of modern writers on the point are given at length in Duker's note on the passage of Livy (xxx. 19). In b. c. 202, Servilius was appointed dictator by the consul M. Servilius Geminus for the purpose of holding the comitia, being the last person who was named dictator till the usurpation of the office by Sulla. In b. c. 201, he was one of the decemviri for dis­tributing lands to the veterans who had fought in Africa under P. Scipio, and in b. c. 183 he was elected pontifex maximus in the place of P. Li-cinius Crassus. He died in b.c. 180. (Liv. xxv. 15, xxvii. 6, 21, 33, 36, xxviii. 10, 46, xxix. 38, xxx. 1, 19, 39, xxxi. 4, xxxix. 46, xl. 37, 42.)

3. Q. servilius, proconsul, was slain by the inhabitants of Asculum on the breaking out of the Social War, in b. c. 90. He is erroneously called Servius by some writers. (Appian, B. C. i. 38 ; Liv. Epit. 72 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 15 ; Oros. v. 18.)

4. P. servilius, a Roman eques, the magister of one of the companies that farmed the taxes in ISicily during the administration of Verres. (Cic. Verr. iii. 71.)

5. C. servilius, a Roman citizen in Sicily, publicly scourged by Verres. (Cic. Verr. v. 54.)

6. M. servilius, accused of repetundae in b. c. 51. (Gael, ad Fam. viii. 8. § 3; Cic. ad Ait. vi. 3. § 10.)

7. M. servilius, tribune of the plebs, b. c. 44, is praised by Cicero as vir fortissimus. (Cic. ad Fam. xii. 7, Philipp. iv. 6.)

SERVFL1US BA'REA SORA'NUS. [BA-

REA.]

SERVILIUS DAMOCRATES. [damo-

C RATES.]

SERVILIUS NONIANUS. [nonianus.] SERVI'LIUS PUDENS. [pudens.] SERVI'LIUS SILANUS. [silanus.] SE'RVIUS, a common Roman praenomen, also occurs as the gentile name of a few persons, though even in the case of these persons the gentile name may have been dropped, and Servius be simply a praenomen.

SERVIUS. A tract, divided into eleven sec­ tions, entitled Servii Ars Grammatica, or more fully, Etxpositio Magistri Servii super Paries Mi- nores, was published, for the first time, from a Berlin MS., by Lindemann, and annexed to his edition of " Pompeii Commentum Artis Donati," 8vo. Lips. 1820, The author is altogether un­ known. [W. R.]

SERVIUS MAURUS HONORATUS, or SE'RVIUS MA'RIUS HONORA'TUS, as the name is variously written, the arrangement of its constituent parts being, moreover, varied in every possible way, was a celebrated Latin grammarian, contemporary with Macrobius, for we cannot reason­ably doubt that he is the Servius introduced among the dramatis personae of the Saturnalia, and who is frequently mentioned with the greatest respect in that work, a warm tribute being paid not only to his learning and his talents, but also to his amiable disposition and unaffected modesty. His most celebrated production was an elaborate com­mentary upon Virgil, compiled from the labours of a multitude of earlier unnotators. This is, no-

SESOSTRIS.

minally, at least, still extant; but from the widely different forms which it assumes in different MSS., it is clear that it must have been changed and in­terpolated to such an extent by the transcribers of the middle ages, that it is impossible to determine how much belongs to Servius and how much to the later hands by whom his performance has been overlaid. Even in its present condition, however, it contains so many quotations from lost works, and so much curious information on abstruse points connected with history, antiquities, and mythology, that it is deservedly regarded as the most important and valuable of all the Latin Scholia. It is at­tached to many of the earlier impressions of the poet, and by comparing a few of these the dis­crepancies alluded to above will be at once per­ceived. Much was done to improve and purify tho text by R. Stephens (Paris, fol. 1532), and by Masvicius (Virgilii Opera, 4to. Leovard. 1717), but it will be found under its best form in the celebrated edition of Virgil by Burmann. The recension by Lion (2 vols. 8vo. Getting. 1825) is not of any particular value.

We possess also the following treatises which bear the name of Servius Maurus Honoratus.

2. In secundam Donati Editionem Interpretation printed by Jo. Theodoricus Bellovacus, in his " Grarnmatici illustres XII." fol. Paris, 1516 ; by Adamus Petri, in his collection, 8vo. Basel, 1527, and included by Putsehius in his " Grammaticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui," 4to. Hannov. 1605, pp. 1779—1799. Some additions will be found in Endlicher, Analecta Grammatica, p. 512,

3. De Ratione ultimarum Syllabarum ad Aqui-linum Liber, first printed along with the Centi-metrum (see below) by Robertus de Fano and Bernardinus de Bergomo, 4to. Call. 1476, and con­tained in Putsehius, p. 1799—1815. See also Endlicher, p. 491, where we have the title de Finalibus.

4. Ars de centum Metris s. Centimetrum, ad­dressed to Albinus, first printed in the " de Schemate et Tropo " of Beda, 4to. Mediol. 1473, contained in Putsehius, pp. 1815—1826, and to be found under its best form in Gaisford's " Scriptores Latini Rei Metricae," 8vo. Oxon. 1837, p. 363. (Macrob. Sat. i. 2, 24, vi. 6, 7, vii. 11; Heyne, de Antiq. Virg. Interpr. Burmann, Praef.) [W. R.] SE'RVIUS POLA. [pola.] SE'RVIUS RUFUS. [Rurus.] SE'RVIUS TU'LLIUS. [tullius.] SESOSTRIS (2eVc0<rrpis), or, as Diodorus calls him, SESOOSIS (Setrooxm), was the name given by the Greeks to the great king of Egypt, who is called in Manetho and on the monuments Ramses or Ramesses. Not only do Manetho and the mo­numents prove that Sesostris is the same as Ramses, but it is evident from Tacitus (Ann. ii. 59) that the Egyptian priests themselves identified Ramses with Sesostris in the account which they gave to Germanicus of the victories of their great monarch. Ramses is a name common to several kings of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth dynasties ; but Sesostris must be identified with Ramses, the third king of the nineteenth dynasty, the son of Seti, and the father of Menephthah, according to the restoration of the lists of Manetho by Bunsen. This king is frequently called Ramses II., or Ramses the Great, to distinguish him from Ramses, the first king of the nineteenth dynasty. It was under the kings of the eighteenth and nineteenth

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