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On this page: Sciras – Sciron – Scironides – Scirus – Sclerias – Scopas


SCIRAS or SCLE'RIAS f2/cfpas, of Tarentum, was one of the followers of Rhinthon in that peculiar sort of comedy, or rather burlesque traged}r, which was cultivated by the Dorians of Magna Graecia, and especially at Tarentum. [rhinthon.] His Mdeager is quoted by Athe-naeus, who describes the species of composition now referred, to by the phrase rrjs 'IraAiKrjs Ka\ov/j.svrjs KwucpStas (ix. p. 402, b.). He is also quoted by other writers. The true form of his name is doubtful, but in the greater number of the few passages in which he is quoted he is called Sclerias. The genuineness of some of the fragments is also doubtful. (Fabric. Bill. Grace. vol. ii. p. 491 ; Muller, Dor. iv. 7. § 6.) [P. S.]

SCIRAS (3/apas), a surname of Athena, under which she had a temple in the Attic port of Pha- leron, and in the island of Salamis (Paus. i. 1. § 4 ; Herod, viii. 94). In the month of Sciro- phorion a festival was celebrated at Athens in honour of her, which was called orKtpaQopta (Har- pocr. s. v. *2,Kipov). The foundation of the temple at Phaleron is ascribed by Pausanias to a sooth­ sayer, Scirus of Dodona, who is said to have come to Attica at the time when the Eleusinians were at war with king Erechtheus. (Paus. i. 36. § 3 ; comp. Strab. ix. p. 393 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. 2fa- pos.) [L. S.]

SCIRON (2/a'pa'j/ or 2,Keipwi>). 1. A famous robber who haunted the frontier between Attica and Megaris, and not only robbed the travellers who passed through the country, but compelled them, on the Scironian rock to wash his feet, during which operation he kicked them with his foot into the sea. At the foot of the rock there was a tortoise, which devoured the bodies of the robber's victims. He was slain by Theseus, in the same manner in which he had killed others (Plut. Thes. 10 ; Diod. iv. 59 ; Strab. ix. p. 391 ; !>aus. i. 44. § 12 ; Schol. ad Eurip. Hipp. 976 ; Ov. Met. vii. 445). In the pediment of the royal Stoa at Athens, there was a group of figures of burnt clay, representing Theseus in the act of throwing Sciron into the sea. (Paus. i. 3. § 1.)

2. A son of Pylas and grandson of Lelex. He was married to the daughter of Pandion, and disputed with her brother Nisus the government of Me- gara ; but Aeacus, who was chosen umpire, decided that Nisus should have the government of Megara, and Sciron the command in war (Paus. i. 39. § 5). Other traditions called this Sciron the husband of Chariclo, and father of Endeis. (Plut. Thes. 10.) [L.S.]

SCIRON or SCYRON (Sicipuv or 2«if/wi>), a Messenian who enjoyed a high estimation among his countrymen, and held the office of Ephor at the time of the unprincipled aggression of the Aetolian Dorimachus [DoRiMACHUsJ. He strongly urged his countrymen to exact reparation from the Aeto­ lian!?, and, by his conduct in the assembly on this occasion, incurred the mortal enmity of Dorimachus. (Polyb. iv. 4.) [E.H.B.]

SCIRONIDES (3iapwvt$i)s), an Athenian, was joined with Phrynichus and Onomacles in the com­mand of an Athenian and Argive force, which was sent out to the coast of Asia Minor in b.c. 412. After a successful engagement with the Milesians, they prepared to besiege Miletus ; but, on the arrival of a Peloponnesian and Sicilian fleet, they sailed away to Samos, by the advice of Phryni­chus, without risking a battle In the same year

vol. in.



Scironides was one of the generals left at Samos, while Strombichides, with two colleagues, pro­ ceeded to act against Chios: but, in b.c. 411, Peisander induced the Athenians to recall Phry­ nichus and Scironides, and to transfer the com­ mand at Samos to Leon and Diomedon. (Thuc: viii. 25—27, 30, 54.) [E. E.]

SCIRUS C%Klpos\ a soothsayer of Dodona, who, in the reign of Erechtheus, came to Salamis, and was afterwards honoured in the island with heroic honours. Salamis is further said to have been called after him, Sciras. (Paus. i. 36. § 3 ; Strab. ix. p. 393 ; Steph. Byz. s. v.) [L. S.]

SCLERIAS. / [sciras.]

SCOPAS (2/co7ras), an Aetolian, who held a leading position among his countrymen at the period of the outbreak of the Social War, B. c. 220. He was a kinsman of Ariston, who at this time held the office of praetor, or general of the Aetolian league, and the latter confided to him the chief conduct of affairs. On this account it was to Scopas that Dorimachus applied for assistance after the ill success of his predatory expedition against Messenia [dorimachus], and although no pre­text had been given for involving the Aetolian nation in war, these two chiefs were bold enough to undertake the enterprise on their own account. In the spring of B. c. 220 accordingly they led an expedition against the Messenians, and not only ravaged the territories of the latter, but when Aratus himself at the head of the Achaean army had come to their support, totally defeated him at Caphyae, and effected their retreat unmolested (Polyb. iv. 5, 6, 9, 10—13.) This daring outrage having naturally led to a public declaration of war by the Achaeans and their ally Philip king of Macedonia against the Aetolians, the latter chose Scopas for their Strategus during the ensuing year, and entrusted to him the conduct of the war which he had himself brought upon them. In the spring of 219 he invaded Macedonia with a large force, laid waste the open country of Pieria without opposition, and having made himself master of Dium, not only destroyed the town, but even plundered and burnt the celebrated temple which gave name to the city. Meanwhile, however, he neglected the defence of Aetolia itself, and left it open to Philip to obtain important advantages on the side of Acnrnania (Id. iv. 27, 62, v. 11). The next year (218) he was sent by Dorimachus (who had succeeded him in the supreme command) with a mercenary force to the assistance of the Eleans (Id. v. 3), but we have no farther account of his operations in that year, or during the remainder of the Social War. His name does not again occur until the year b. c. 211, when we find him again holding the office of general, and in that capacity presiding in the assembty of the Aetolians, which concluded the alliance with the Roman praetor, M. Valerius Laevinus. The conquest of Acarnania was the bait held out to allure the Aetolians into this league, and Scopas immediately assembled his forces for the invasion of that country. But the determined resistance of the Acarnanians them­selves, and the advance of Philip to their relief, rendered his efforts abortive. The next year ( b. c. 210) we find him co-operating with Lae­vinus in the siege of Anticyra, which, after its capture, was given up to the Aetolians (Liv. xxvi. 24—26). After the close of the war with Philip, we are told that the Aetolians were distracted


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