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SCAURUS.

frequent acquittals would show. There was a gravity and.earnestness in his character which com­manded their respect ; and he carefully concealed from public view his vices, especially his avarice and acts of rapine. Sallust characterizes him as " homo nobilis, impiger, factiosus, avidus potentiae, honoris, divitiarum ; ceterum vitia sua callide oc-cultans" (Jug. 15). Some deductions ought, perhaps, to be made from this estimate of his cha­racter, in consequence of the well-known hatred of the historian to the aristocracy ; but when it is recollected that Scaurus was a poor man when he commenced public life, it is evident that the immense wealth which he left to his son could not have been acquired by honest means ; and the bribes which he received from Jugurtha, may fairly be regarded as only a specimen of the way in which his property was obtained. The speeches of Scaurus were impressive and weighty, but were deficient in imagination and fire. " They were more adapted," says Cicero (Brut. 29), " for the senate than the courts." Cicero accordingly classes him among the Stoic orators. Scaurus also wrote a work in three books on his own life, which is sometimes referred to by the grammarians, but which no one was accustomed to read in the time of Cicero. (Aurel. Vict. de III. Vir. 72 ; Val. Max. iv. 4. § 11 ; Sail. Jug. 15, 25, 28, 29, 40 ; Plut. Quaest. Rom. c. 50 ; Ascon. in Scaur, pp. 21, 22 ; Cic. Brut. 29, 30, 35, de Orat. i. 49, pro Mur. 17, and the other passages quoted in Orelli's Onomasticon Tullianum; Meyer, Orator. Roman. Fragm. pp.253—261, 2nd ed. ; Krause, Vitae et Fragm. Hist. Roman, pp. 223—227.)

3. M. aemilius scaurus, the eldest son of the preceding, and stepson of the dictator Sulla, whom his mQther Caecilia married after the death of his father, as has been already remarked. In the third Mithridatic war he served under Pompey as quaestor. The latter sent to him to Damascus with an army, and from thence he marched into Judaea, to settle the disputes between the brothers Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. Both of them offered him large sums of money ; but he decided for Aristobulus, probably because he bid the highest, B. c. 64. After driving Hyrcanus out of Judaea, Scaurus returned to Damascus. Upon Pompey *s arrival at this city in the following year, an accu­sation was brought against Scaurus of having been bribed by Aristobulus ; but though Pompey re­versed his decision, and placed Hyrcanus upon the throne, he took no notice of the charges, and left Scaurus in the command of Syria with two legions. Scaurus remained in Syria till b. c. 59, when he was succeeded by L. Marcius Philippus, During his government of Syria he made a predatory incursion into Arabia Petraea, but withdrew on the payment of 300 talents by Aretas, the king of the country.

On his return to Rome he became a candidate for the curule aedileship, which he held in B. c. 58, the year in which P. Clodius was tribune. The extraordinary splendour with which he celebrated the public games surpassed every thing of the kind that had been previously witnessed in Rome, and it is by them that his name has been chiefly handed down to posterity. The temporary theatre which he built accommodated 80,000 spectators, and was adorned in the most magnificent manner. Three hundred and sixty pillars decorated the stage, arranged in three stories, of which the lowest was

VOL. III.

737

SCAURUS.

made of white marble, the middle one of glass, and the highest of gilt wood. Between the pillars there were three thousand statues, besides paintings and other ornaments. The combats of wild beasts were equally astonishing. A hundred and fifty panthers were exhibited in the circus, and five cro­codiles and a hippopotamus were seen for the first time at Rome. But Scaurus purchased the favour of the people in these shows rather too dearly. So costly were they that they not only absorbed all the property which his father had left him, and the treasures which he had accumulated in the East, but compelled him to borrow money of the usurers in order to defray the expenses.

In b. c. 56 Scaurus was praetor, during which year he presided in the court in which P. Sestius was accused, who was defended by Cicero. In the following year he governed the province of Sar­dinia, which he plundered without mercy, as he wanted money both to pay his debts and to pur­chase the consulship. On his return to Rome in b. c. 54, he became a candidate for the consulship ; but before the consular elections took place, his competitors, at the beginning of July, got P. Va­lerius Triarius and three others to accuse him of repetundae in Sardinia, thus hoping to get rid of a formidable opponent. His guilt was certain ; there were numerous witnesses against him ; and M. Cato, who presided as praetor, was not to be cor­rupted, and was favourable to Triarius. Still Scaurus did not despair. He was defended by Cicero and Hortensius, as well as by four other orators. Many of the most distinguished men at Rome, and among them nine persons of consular rank, pleaded on his behalf ; while the tears of Scau­rus himself, and his appeals to the splendour of his aedileship, produced a powerful effect upon the judices. Thus, notwithstanding his guilt, he was acquitted on the 2nd of September, almost unani­mously. Soon afterwards, and in the course of the same year, he was again accused by Triarius, on a charge of ambitus (Cic. ad Ait. iv. 16. §§ 7, 8, iv. 17. § 2, ad Q. Fr. iii. 2. § 3). Drumann says that he was condemned in this year, and went into exile. But this appears to be a mistake ; for although it is evident from the preceding passages in Cicero's letters, that Scaurus was accused of ambitus in b. c. 54, it is equally clear from the testimony of Appian (B. C. ii. 24), that he was condemned in the third consulship of Pompey, b. c. 52. Hence it is probable that Scaurus was acquitted in b. c. 54, and accused again in b. c. 52, under Pompey's new law against ambitus. From this time the name of Scaurus does not occur again. He married Mucia, who had been previously the wife of Pompey [MticiA, No. 2], and by her he had one son [No. 5]. (Joseph. Ant* xiv. 3—5, B. J. i. 7 ; Appian, Syr. 51 ; Cic. pro Sest. 54, de Off. ii. 16 ; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 2, xxxvi. 15. s. 24, et alibi ; Val. Max. ii. 4. § 6 ; Cic. ad *Q. Fr. ii. 15. § 4, ii. 16. § 3, iii. 1. §§ 4, 5, iii. 2. § 3, ad Att. iv. 15. §§ 7, 9, iv. 16. §§ 7, 8, iv..l7. § 2, de Off. i. 39 ; Ascon. Argum. in Scaur. ; and the Fragments of Cicero's Oration for Scaurus.)

The following coin was struck in the curule aedileship of Scaurus and his colleague, P. Plautius Hypsaeus. The subject of the obverse relates to Hypsaeus, and that of the reverse to Scaurus. The former represents Jupiter in a quadriga, with p.

HYFSAEVS. AED. CVR. C. HVPSAE. COS. PRE1VER.

captv. ; the latter part of the legend referring to

3 B

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