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SATURNINUS.

force of arms to surrender the province to him. [Piso, No. 23.] Tacitus calls the governor of Syria simply Cn. Sentius, but there can be little doubt that he is the same as the consul suffectus of a. d. 4. (Tac. Ann. ii. 74, 79, 81, iii. 7.)

5. cn. sentius saturninus, son of No. 4, was consul a. d. 41, with the emperor Caligula, who was slain in this year. After the death of Cali­gula, Saturninus made a long speech in the senate against tyranny, if we may trust the account in Josephus. (Joseph. Ant. xix. 2, B. J. ii. 11.)

6. L. sentius saturninus, occurs on coins of the republican period, but it is uncertain who he was. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 305.)

COIN OF L. SENTIUS SATURNINUS.

SATURNINUS, VENULE'IUS, is said by Lampridius (Alex. Severus, c. 68) to have been a pupil of Papinianus,and a consiliarius of Alexander Severus. There is a rescript of Alexander to Ve-nuleius (Cod. 7. tit. 1. s. 1), and one of Antoninus (Caracalla) addressed to Saturninus in the year A.D. 213 (Cod. 5. tit. 65. s. 1) ; both of which may have been addressed to Venuleius Saturninus. His writings, as they are stated in the Florentine Index and appear from the excerpts in the Digest, were :—Decem Libri Actionum, Sex Interdictorum Quatuor de Officio Proconsulis, Tres Publicorum or De Publicis Judiciis^ and Novemdecem Stipula-tionum. The title Venul. Libri Septem Disp. (Dig. 46. tit. 7- s. 18) is manifestly erroneous, as appears from the titles of the two following extracts ; and we must either read Stipulationum in place of Dis-putationum^ or we must read Ulp. in place of Ve­nul. The work De Poenis Paganorum is erro­neously attributed 'to Venuleius in the Florentine Index.

There are seventy-one excerpts from Venuleius in the Digest. (Zimmern, Gescliichte des Rom. Privatrechts, i. p. 379.) [G. L ]

SATURNINUS, VITE'LLIUS, praefectus of a legion under Otho. (Tac. Hist. i. 82.)

SATURNFNUS, VOLU'SIUS. 1. L. volu-sius saturninus, consul suffectus in b.c. 12, was descended from an ancient family, none of the members of which, however, had previously obtained any higher office in the state than the praetorship. This Saturninus first accumulated the enormous wealth for which his family after­wards became so celebrated. He died in a. d. 20. (Tac. Ann. iii. 30.)

2. L. volusius saturninus, son of the pre­ceding, was consul suffectus, a. d. 3. He died in the reign of Nero, a. d. 56, at the age of ninety-three, having survived all the persons who were members of the senate during his consulship. It appears from Pliny that he was praefect of the city at the time of his death. The great wealth which he had inherited from his father he still further increased by economy. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 30, xiv. 56 ; Plin. H. N. vii. 12. s. 14, vii. 48. s. 49, xi. 38. s. 90.)

SATURNUS.

3. Q. volusius saturninus, son of the pre­ceding, was consul in A. d. 56, with P. Cornelius Scipio. His father was upwards of sixty-two years of age when he was born : his mother was a Cornelia of the family of the Scipios. He was one of three commissioners who took the census of the Gauls, in a. d. 61. (Plin. //. N. vii. 12. s. 14 ; Tac. Ann. xiii. 25, xiv. 46.)

4. A. volusius saturninus, consul a. d. 87, with the emperor Domitian. (Fasti.)

5. Q. volusius saturninus, consul a. d. 92, with the emperor Domitian. (Fasti.)

SATURNIUS, that is, a son of Saturnus, and accordingly used as a surname of Jupiter and Neptune. (Virg. Aen. iv. 372, v. 799.) [L. S.]

SATURNUS, a mythical king of Italy to whom was ascribed the introduction of agriculture and the habits of civilised life in general. The name is, notwithstanding the different quantity, con­nected with the verb sero, sevi, satum, and although the ancients themselves invariably identify Satur­nus with the Greek Cronos, there is no resemblance whatever between the attributes of the two deities, except that both were regarded as the most ancient divinities in their respective countries. The re­semblance is much stronger between Demeter and Saturn, for all that the Greeks ascribe to their De-meter is ascribed by the Italians to Saturn, who in the very earliest times came to Italy in the reign of Janus. (Virg. Aen. viii. 314, &c.; Macrob. Sat. i. 10 ; P. Vict. De Orig. Gent. Rom. 1, &c.) Saturnus, then, deriving his name from sowing, is justly called the introducer of civilisation and social order, both of which are inseparably connected with agriculture. His reign is, moreover, con­ceived for the same reason to nave been the golden age of Italy, and more especially of the Aborigines, his subjects. As agricultural industry is the source of wealth and plenty, his wife was Ops, the representative of plenty. The story related of the god, is that in the reign of Janus he came to Italy, was hospitably received by Janus, and formed a settlement on the Capitoline hill, which was hence called the Saturnian hill. At the foot of that hill, on the road leading up the Capitol, there stood in aftertimes the temple of Saturn. (Dionys. vi. 1 ; Liv. xli. 27; Vict. /. c. 3, Reg. Urb. viii.) Saturn then made the people acquainted with agriculture, suppressed their savage mode of life, and led them to order, peaceful occupations, and morality. The result was that the whole country was called Sa-turnia or the land of plenty. (Virg. Aen. viii. 358 ; Justin, xliii. 1; Macrob. -Sat. i. 7; Varro, De Ling. Led. v. 42 ; Fest. s.v. Saturnia; Victor, /. c.) Saturn, like many other mythical kings, suddenly disappeared, being removed from earth to the abodes of the gods, and immediately after Janus is said to have erected an altar to Saturn in the forum. (Macrob. I. c.; Arnob. iv. 24; Ov. Fast. i. 238.) It is further related that Latium received its name (from lateo} from this disappearance of Saturn, who for the same reason was regarded by some as a divinity of the nether world. (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 24.)

Respecting the festival solemnized by the Ro­mans in honour of Saturn, see Diet, of Antiq. s. v. Saturnalia.

The statue of Saturnus was hollow and filled with oil, probably to denote the fertility of Latium in olives (Plin. H. N. xv. 7. 7); in his hand he held a crooked pruning knife, and his feet were

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