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SATURNINUS.

the case of Cluentius (pro Cluentio, 385 65). He pleaded for Chaerea against Cicero's client, Q. Roscius, the comic actor (pro Rose. Com. 1, 6,8).

SATURNIA, that is, a daughter of Saturnus, and accordingly used as a surname of Juno and Vesta. (Virg. Aen. i. 23, xii. 156; Ov. Fast. i. 265, vi. 383.) [L. S.]

SATURNINUS, artists. 1. One of the great gem-engravers of the age of Augustus. There is a beautiful cameo by him, engraved with the portrait of the younger Antonia, the wife of Drusus, and inscribed with the word CATOP-NGINOT, in very fine characters. The gem formerly belonged to the Arcieri family at Rome, and afterwards to the late queen of Naples, Caroline Murat. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 153, 2ded.).

2. Among the artists of the age of the Anto-nines, Miiller mentions, on the authority of Ap-pulei'us (de Magia, p. 66, ed. Bipont.), a skilful wood-carver, named Saturninus, of Oea, in Africa. (Miiller, Arch'dol.d. Kunst, § 204, n. 5.)

3. P. Lucretius, a silver-chaser, only known by a Roman inscription. (Doni, Inscript. p. 319, No. 12 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 401, 2d ed.) [P. S.]

SATURNINUS L, one of the thirty tyrants enumerated by Trebellius Pollio [see aureolus], by whom we are told that he was the best of all the generals of his day, and much beloved by Valerian, that disgusted by the debauchery of Gallienus, he accepted from the soldiers the title of emperor, and that, after having displayed much energy during the period of his sway, he was put to death by the troops, who could not endure the sternness of his discipline. Not one word, how­ ever, is said of the country in which these events took place. (Trebell. Poll. Trig. Tyr. 22.) [W. R.]

SATURNINUS II., a native of Gaul, whose biography has been written by Vopiscus, distin­ guished himself so highly by military achievements in his native country, in Spain and Africa, that he was regarded as one of the most able officers in the empire, and was appointed by Aurelian commander of the Eastern frontier, with express orders that he should never visit Egypt, for it was feared that the presence of an active and ambitious Gaul among a population notorious for turbulence and violence might lead to disorder or insurrection. The far-seeing sagacity of this injunction was fully proved, for when, at a later period, during the reign of Probus, Saturninus entered Alexandria, the crowd at once saluted him as Augustus. Fly­ ing from such a dangerous compliment, he returned to Syria ; but concluding, upon reflection, that his safety was already compromised, with great reluc­ tance he permitted himself to be invested wiih a purple robe stripped from a statue of Venus, and in that attire, surrounded by his troops, received the adoration of the crowd. He was eventually slain by the soldiers of Probus, although the em­ peror would willingly have spared his life. (Vo­ piscus, Saturn.} [W. R.]

SATURNINUS III. A medal in third brass has been described by Banduri, which, if genuine, cannot, according to the most skilful numismato-logists, be ascribed to an epoch earlier than the age of the sons of Constantine, and must therefore commemorate the usurpation of some pretender with

SATURNINUS.

regard to whom history is altogether silent. The piece in*question exhibits on the obverse a rayed head with the words imp. cae. satvrninvs av.; on the reverse a soldier stabbing an enemy who has fallen from his horse, with fel. tem. repa- ratio, a legend which appears for the first time on the coins of Constans and Cons tan tius. (Eckhel, vol. viii. pp. 111—113.) [W. R.]

SATURNINUS, AE'LIUS, composed some poems disrespectful to the emperor Tiberius, and was in consequence condemned by the senate, and hurled down from the Capitol. (Dion Cass. Ivii. 22.)

SATURNINUS, AEMHJUS, praefectus praetorio under Septimius Severn s, was slain by Plautianus, the all-powerful favourite of the em­peror. (Dion Cass. Ixxv. 14.)

SATURNINUS, A'NNIUS, mentioned in a letter of Cicero (ad Ait. v. 1. § 2).

SATURNINUS, L. ANTO'NIUS, governor of Upper Germany in the reign of Domitian, raised a rebellion against that emperor from motives of personal hatred, A. d. 91. A sudden inundation of the Rhine prevented Saturninus from receiving the assistance of the barbarians which had been promised him, and he was in consequence conquered without difficulty by L. Appius Maximus, the general of Domitian. Maximus burnt all the letters of Antonius, that others might not be implicated in the revolt ; but Domitian did not imitate the magnanimity of his general, for he seized the pretext to put various persons to death along with Saturninus, and sent their heads to be exposed on the Rostra at Rome. It is related that the victory over An­tonius was announced at Rome on the same day on which it was fought. As to the variations in the name of L. Appius Maximus in the different writers see maximus, p. 986, b. (Dion Cass. Ixvii. 11 ; Suet. Dom. 6, 7 ; Aurel. Vict. Epit. 11 ; Mart. iv. 11, ix. 85 ; Plut. Aemil. Paul. 25.)

SATURNINUS, APO'NIUS, the governor of Moesia at the death of Nero, repulsed the Sarmatians, who had invaded the province, and was in consequence rewarded by a triumphal statue at the commencement of Otho's reign. In the struggle between Vitellius and Vespasian for the empire, he first espoused the cause of the former, but afterwards declared himself in fa­vour of the latter, and crossed the Alps to join Antonius Primus in northern Italy. But Primus, who was anxious to obtain the supreme command, excited a mutiny of the soldiers against Saturninus, and compelled him to fly from the camp. Tacitus calls him a consular, which we might infer from his being Legatus of Moesia, but his name does not occur in the P'asti. (Tac. Hist. i. 79, ii. 85, 96, iii. 5, 9, 11.)

SATURNINUS, APPULEIUS. 1. C. ap-puleius saturninus, was one of the commis­sioners sent by the senate in b. c. 168 to inquire into and settle the disputes between the Pisani and Lunenses. (Liv. xlv. 13.)

2. appuleius saturninus, praetor b.c. 166, is probably the same person as the L. Appuleius who was appointed in b. c. 173 one of the com­missioners for dividing certain lands in Liguria and Gaul among the citizens and Latins. (Liv. xlv. 44, comp. xlii. 4.)

3. L. appuleius saturnjjnjus, the celebrated

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