The Ancient Library

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On this page: Sa Lvius Valens – Salustius – Salynthius – Samia – Samius – Sammonicus Serenus – Samolas – Sampsiceramus – Sampson



No. 6 ; Visconti, Mus. Pio-Clem. vol. vii. pi. xliii. p. 75; Winckelmann, Gesch. d. Kunst, b. ii. c. 2. § 18, with the notes of Fea and Meyer ; Welcker, Kunstblatt, 1827, No. 83 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 400, 2d ed.)

2. C. julius, an artist, who is described on a Latin inscription at Florence as structor parietum, which has been supposed to mean one who deco­ rated walls with mosaics ; but the correctness of this explanation is very doubtful. (Inscr. Ant. Eirur. vol. i. p. 154, No. 80 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 400, 2d ed.) [P. S.] SA'LVIUS COCCEIA'NUS. [cocceianus.] SA'LVIUS JULIA'NUS. [julianus.] SA'LVIUS LIBERA'LIS. [liberalis.] SA'LVIUS OTHO. [otho.] SA'LVIUS POLE'MIUS. [polemics.] SA'LVIUS TITIA'NUS, as he is usually called, but his full name was Salvius Otho Ti- tianus. [otho, No. 3.]

SA LVIUS VALENS. [valens.] SALUS, the personification of health, prosperity, and*the public welfare, among the Romans. In the first of these three senses she answers very closely to the Greek Hygieia, and was accordingly represented in works of art with the same attri­ butes as the Greek goddess. In the second sense she represents prosperity in general. (Plaut. Cist. iv. 2. 76 ; Terent. Adelpli. iv. 7, in fin. ; Cic. pro Font. 6), and was invoked by the husbandmen at seed-time. (Ov. Fast. iii. 880 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 16.) In the third sense Salus is the goddess of the public welfare (Salus publica or Romand). In this capacity a temple had been vowed to her in the year B. c. 307, by the censor C. Junius Bubulcus on the Quirinal hill (Liv. ix. 43, x. 1), which was afterwards decorated with paintings by C. Fabius Pictor. (Val. Max. viii. 14. §6; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 4 ; Tacit. Ann. xv. 74.) She was wor­ shipped publicly on the 30th of April, in con­ junction with Pax, Concordia, and Janus. (Ov. Fast. iii. 881 ; Zonar. x. 34.) It had been cus­ tomary at Rome every year, about the time when the consuls entered upon their office, for the augurs and other high-priests to observe the signs for the purpose of ascertaining the fortunes of the republic during the coming year ; this observation of the signs was called augurium Salutis. In the time of Cicero, this ceremony had become a mere matter of form, and neglected ; but Augustus restored it, and the custom afterwards remained as long as paganism was the religion of the state. (Sueton. Aug. 31 ; Tacit. Ann. xii. 23 ; Lydus, de Mens. iv. 10 ; comp. Cic. de Leg. ii. 8.) This solemnity was conducted with prayers and vows for the good of the people, and the success of the generals and magistrates, and took place on some day on which there was no disturbance, discord, or any thing else which, as a bad omen, might have interfered with the prayers. (Cic. de Div. i. 47 ; Dion Cass. xxxvii. 24 ; Fest. s. v. Maximum praetorem.) Hence it was regarded as a favour­ able sign when the people were cheerful and joyous, even to excess, and for this reason the magistrates even allowed themselves to be ridi­ culed by the people. (Lydus, I. c.) Salus was represented, like Fortuna, with a rudder, a globe at her feet, and sometimes in a sitting posture, pouring from a patera a libation upon an altar, around which a serpent is winding itself. (Hirt, Mythol Bilderb. p. 109.) [L. S.]


SALUSTIUS. [sallustius.]

SALYNTHIUS (2aAw0ios), a king of the Agraeans, gave a hospitable reception to the Pelo- ponnesians, who, after the battle of Olpae (b. c. 426), had abandoned their Ambraciot allies and secured their own safety by a secret agreement with Demosthenes, the Athenian general. In b c. 424, Demosthenes invaded the territory of Salynthius, and reduced him to subjection. (Thuc. iii/111, iv. 77.) [E. R]

SAMIA (ZafjLia), a daughter of the river-god Maeander, and wife of Ancaeus, by whom she became the mother of Samos. (Pans. vii. 4. § 2.) Samia also occurs as a surname of Hera, which is derived from her temple and worship in the island of Samos. (Herod, iii. 60 ; Paus. vii. 4. § 4 ; Tacit. Ann. iv. 14 ; comp. hera.) There was also a tradition that Hera was born or at least brought up in Samos. (Paus. /. c. ; Schol. ad Apollon. Mod. i. 187.) [L. S.]

SAMIUS (2a,utos), a surname of, Poseidon, derived from his temples in Samos and Samicon in Elis. (Strab. xiv. p. 637 ; comp. viii. pp. 343, 347 ; Pans. vi. 25. § 5.) [L. S.]

SAMIUS, a Roman eques in the reign of Claudius, put an end to his own life, a. d. 47. (Tac. Ann. xi. 5.)

SAMIUS, or SAMUS (Sdpios, 2<fcos), a lyric- and epigrammatic poet, was a Macedonian, and was brought up with Philip V., the son of Deme­ trius, by whom also he was put to death, but for what reason we are not informed. (Polyb. v. 9, xxiv. 8.) He therefore flourished at the end of the third century, b. c. Polybius (v. 9) has pre­ served one of his iambic lines ; and two epigrams by him are contained in the Greek Anthology, both on the subject of Philip^ exploit in killing the wild bull on Mount Orbelus, on which we have also an epigram by Antipater of Sidon. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 10, No. 18.) The name is written in both the above ways, and in the Planudean Anthology both epigrams are ascribed to Simmias^ doubtless by the common error of substituting a well-known name for one less known. (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 485 ; Jacobs, Antli. Gruec. vol. i. p. 236, vol. xiii. pp. 948, 949.) [P. S.]


SAMOLAS (2a^ioAas), an Achaean, was one of the three commissioners who were sent by the Cyrean Greeks from Cotyora to Sinope, in b. c. 400, for ships to convey the army to Heracleia. (Xen. Anab. v. 6. § 14, vi. 1. § 14.) Not long after, when the Greeks were at Calpe, we find Sa- molas commanding a division of the reserve in the successful engagement with the allied troops of the Bithynians and Pharnabazus. (Xen. Anal), vi. 5. §11.) [E. E.]

SAMOLAS (^ctyioAas), an Arcadian, was one of the statuaries who made the bronze figures which the people of Tegea dedicated as a votive offering at Delphi, out of the booty taken in war from the Lacedaemonian^, about b. c. 400, as we know from the dates of the artists who executed other portions of this group. The statues made by Samolas were those of Triphylus and Azan. (Paus. x. 9. § 3. s. 6 ; antiphanes.) [P. S.]

SAMPSICERAMUS, the name of a petty prince of Emesa in Syria, is a nickname given by Cicero to Cn. Pompeius. (Strab. xvi. p. 753; Cic. ad Ait. ii. 14, 16, 17,23.)

SAMPSON (2a,u^v), St., surnamed 6

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