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whereby the king's perplexity and tormenting suspicion were greatly increased. At length, however, the machinations of Salome and her accomplices prevailed against the princes, and succeeded in effecting their death, in b.c. 6. Nor was the favour of Herod ever afterwards withdrawn from his sister, who was prudent enough, indeed, to cultivate it assiduously. Thus, listening to the advice of the empress Livia, she obeyed her brother in marrying Alexas, his confidant, though sorely against her will; and she detected and put him on his guard against the treasonable designs of antipater and Pheroras. It was to her accordingly, and to her husband Alexas, as those upon whom he could best depend, that Herod, on his death-bed at Jericho, gave the atrocious order, that the Jewish nobles, whom he had sent for and shut up in the Hippodrome, should all be murdered there as soon as he breathed his last, so that his death might excite at any rate lamentations of some kind. This command, however, they did not obey. On the decease of Herod, Salome received as a bequest from him the towns of Jamnia, Azotus, and Phasaelis, besides a large quantity of money, to which Augustus added a palace at Ascalon ; and Josephus tells us that her annual income amounted altogether to 60 talents. She died during the time that M. Ambivius was procurator of Judea ; i. e. between 10 and ISA. d., leaving the bulk of her possessions to the empress Livia. (Strab. xvi. p. 765 ; Joseph. Ant. xiv. 7, xv. 3, 7, xvi. ], 3, 4, 7—11, xvii. 1, 2—9, 11, xviii. 2, Bell. Jud. i. 8, 22—25, 28, 29, 32, 33, ii. 6, 9; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. i. 8.)
3. A daughter of Herod the Great by El pis. In addition to what her father bequeathed to her, Augustus gave her a considerable dowry, and married her to one of the sons of Pheroras, Herod's brother. (Joseph. Ant. xvii. 1. §3, 8. §1,11. §5, Bell. Jud. i. 28. § 4, 29. § 1, ii. 6. § 3.)
4. Daughter of Herodias by Herod Philip, son of Herod the Great, was the maiden who pleased Herod Antipas by her dancing, and obtained from him the execution of John the Baptist. She was twice married — 1st to her uncle Philip, the te- trarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis, who died childless; and 2d, to her cousin Aristobulus, son of Herod king of Chalcis [aristobulus, No. 6.], by whom she had three sons (Matt. xiv. 3—12 ; Mark, vi. 17—29 ; Joseph. Ant. xviii. 5. §§2, 4). The legendary account of her death, as given by Nicephorus in his Ecclesiastical History (i. 20), is a very clumsy invention. [E. E.]
SALO NIA, the second wife of Cato the Censor, was the daughter of a scribe, and client of the latter, and bore the vigorous old man a son when he had completed his eightieth year. This son, who was called M. Cato Salonianus, was the grandfather of Cato Uticensis. (Plut. Cat. Maj. 24 ; Gell. xiii. 19.) It is stated in Hieronymus (in Jovian, vol. iv. p. 190, ed. Paris) that the name of Cato's second wife was Actoria Paula, but the name is probably a mistake of the copyist for Aemilia Paula, who was the wife of the Censor's eldest son. (Drumann, Gescliichte Roms, vol. v. p. 148, &c.).
SALON INA, CORNE'LIA, Augusta, the wife of Gallienus and mother of Saloninus. Since her son perished at the age of seventeen [saloni-
nus], upon the capture of Colonia Agrippina by Postumus, in a. d. 259, she must have been married before a. d. 242, that is, upwards of ten years before the elevation of Valerian. Zonaras asserts that she witnessed with her own eyes the death of her husband before the walls of Milan, in a. d. 268, a statement fully confirmed, as far as dates are concerned, by the numerals found on Alexandrian medals. Hence it is evident that Gibbon is mistaken in supposing that Pipara or Pipa,the daughter of the Suevic Attains, had any claim to be regarded as the lawful spouse of Gallienus.
The Roman medals of Salonina, which are very common, exhibit those names only which are placed at the head of this article, but on the productions of the Greek mint we find also the appellations Julia (TOT. KOP. CAAHNINA), Publia Licinia (HO. AIK. KOP. CAAHNINA), and Chrysogone (CAA&N. XPTCOrONH. CEB.). From the last some have concluded that she was of Grecian origin, but of her family we know nothing. (For autho rities see gallienus ; saloninus ; valeri- anus.) [W. R.J
COIN OP SALONINA.
SALONl'NUS, was given by Asinius Pollio, as an agnomen to his son C. Asinius Gallus [gallus, asinius, No. 2J. Asinius Gallus seems not to have employed the name himself, but he gave it as a cognomen to one of his sons by Vipsania, the former wife of the emperor Tiberius. This son, Asinius Saloninus, died in A. d. 28. (Tac. Ann. iii. 75.)
SALONINUS, P. LICFNIUS CORN.E'-LIUS VALERIA'NUS, son of Gallienus and Salonina, grandson of the emperor Valerian. When his father and grandfather assumed the title of Augustus, in a. d. 253, the youth received the designation of Caesar. Some years afterwards he was left in Gaul, under the charge of Silvanus, at the period when Gallienus was hastily summoned to encounter the rebel Ingenuus, in Pannonia. The insurrection headed by Postumus soon after broke out, and Saloninus was driven to take refuge in Colonia Agrippina, where he was put to death by the conqueror, upon the capture of the city in a. d. 259 [see postumus], being at that time about seventeen years old. In addition to the names placed at the head of this article, we find Gallienus upon a coin of Perinthus (see also Zonaras, xii. 24), and Egnatius upon one of Samos. The appellations Cornelius Saloninus appear to have been inherited from his mother, the remainder from his paternal ancestors. Great embarrassment has been caused to historians and archaeologists by the circumstance that, upon many of the numerous medals, both Greek and Roman, struck in his honour, while he was yet alive, he is styled Augustus ; while on those which commemorate his apotheosis, he appears as Caesar only. Among the various explanations proposed of this anomaly,