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English versions. The oldest is Barclay's trans lation of the JugurtJia. The latest are by H. Stevvart, London, 1806, 2 vols. 4to. and by Arthur Murphy, London, 1807. The Index Editionum Sallustii and Index Versionum, pre fixed to Frotscher's edition, show the prodigious labour that has been expended on the works of Sallustius. [G. L.]
C. SALLUSTIUS CRISPUS, the grandson of the sister of the historian, was adopted by the latter, and inherited his great wealth. In imitation of Maecenas, he preferred remaining a Roman eques ; and without the dignity of a senator, he possessed more influence in the state than those who had been distinguished by consulships and triumphs. Though given to luxury, and affecting to care only for his personal enjoyments, he possessed great vigour of mind, and capacity for public business. For many years he was second only to Maecenas in the confidence of Augustus, and on the fail of that favourite he became the principal adviser of the emperor. He enjoyed the same distinction at first under Tiberius, and having been privy to the murder of Agrippa Postumus, he recommended Li via, when the matter was mentioned in the senate, not to allow the imperial secrets to be discussed in that body. In a. d. 16 he was employed by Tiberius to apprehend the false Agrippa. He died in a. d. 20, at an advanced age, having lost the real confidence of the emperor some time previously, though he continued nominally to be one of his friends (Tac. Ann. i. 6, ii. 40, iii. 30 ; Senec. de Clem. 10). He possessed valuable copper mines in the Alpine country of the Centrones (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 2). The Sallustius, whom Horace attacked in one of his Satires (Sat. i. 2. 48), is probably the same person as the preceding ; but at a later period, when the poet became acquainted with the imperial court, he addressed one of his odes to him. (Carm. ii. 2.)
SALMONEUS (SaX^coj/eu's), a son of Aeolus by Enarete, and a brother of Sisyphus. (Apollod. i. 7. § 3 ; Schol. ad Find. Pytli. iv. 252.) He was first married to Alcidice and afterwards to Sidero ; by the former wife he was the father of Tyro. (Horn. Od. xi. 235 ; Apollod. i. 9. § 8 ; Diod. iv. 68.) He originally lived in Thessaly, but emigrated to Elis, where he built the town of Salmone. (Strab. viii. p. 356.) He there went so far in his presumption and arrogance, that he deemed himself equal to Zeus, and ordered sacri fices to be offered to himself; nay, he even imitated the thunder and lightning of Zeus, but the father of the gods killed the presumptuous man with his thunderbolt, destroyed his town, and punished him in the lower world. (Apollod. i. 9. § 7 ; Lucian, Tim. 2 ; Virg. Aen. vi. 585, &c. ; Hygin. Fab. 60, 61, 250; Claudian, in Rufin. 514.) [L. S.]
SALOME (2a\w>)). 1. Also called Alexandra, was the wife of Aristobulus I., king of the Jews, on whose death, in b.c. 106, she released his brothers, who had been thrown by him into prison, and advanced the eldest of them (Alexander Jannaeus) to the throne (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 12. § 1, Bell. Jud, i. 4. § 1). By some she has
been identified with Alexandra, the wife of Alexander Jannaeus, who, according to this hypothesis, married her, in obedience to the Jewish law, to raise up seed to his brother. Such a conjecture, however, is disproved by the fact, that Hyrca-nus II., son of Alexander Jannaeus and Alexandra, was past 80 when he died, in b. c. 30, and therefore must have been born several years before the death of Aristobulus I. (See Joseph. Ant. xv. 6. § 3.)
2. Daughter of Antipater, the Idumaean, by his wife Cypros, and sister to Herod the Great. Salome and her mother conceived the bitterest hatred against Herod's wife Mariamne, who, proud of her Asmonaean blood, had overbearingly and imprudently contrasted it with theirs ; and accordingly, in b. c. 34, on the return of Herod from Laodiceia, whither he had been summoned by Antony to answer for the murder of his brother-in-law, the young Aristobulus [aristobulus, No. 3.], they accused Mariamne of adultery with Josephus (the uncle and husband of Salome), to whose care Herod had committed his wife on his departure, and who consequently fell a victim to the jealousy of the king. Nor did many years elapse before, in b. c. 29, the life of Mariamne herself also was sacrificed to the anger of Herod, instigated by the calumnious representations of Salome and Cypros [mariamne, No. 1.] On the death of Josephus, Salome married Costobarus, a noble Idumaean, whom Herod had made governor of Idumaea and Gaza. Soon after his marriage, Costobarus was detected in a treasonable negotiation with Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, to whom he offered to transfer his allegiance, if she could prevail on Antony to add Idumaea to her dominions ; and it was only by the entreaties of Cypros and Salome that Herod was induced to spare his life. It was not long, however, before dissensions arose between Salome and her husband, whereupon she divorced him, in defiance of the Jewish law, which gave no such power to the wife, and effected his death by representing to her brother that she had repudiated him because she had discovered that he had abused the royal clemency, and was still guilty of treasonable practices. This occurred in B. c. 26.
Against the sons of Mariamne, Alexander and Aristobulus [aristobulus, No. 4.], Salome continued to cherish the same hatred with which she had persecuted their mother to her fate ; and with this feeling she also strove successfully to infect her own daughter, berenice, whom Aristobulus, about b. c. 16, had received in marriage from Herod. The hostility was cordially reciprocated by the princes, who, however, were no match for the arts of Salome, aided too as she was by her brother Pheroras, and her nephew Antipater, and who only played into the hands of their enemies by their indiscreet violence of language. Salome did indeed herself incur for a time the displeasure of Herod, who suspected her, with good reason, of having calumniated him to his son Alexander, as harbouring evil designs towards Glaphyra, the wife of the latter, while his anger against her was further provoked by her undisguised passion for Syllaeus, the minister of Obodas, king of the Na-bathaeans, and his ambassador at the Jewish court. Again, when Herod, lending a ready ear to the calumnies against his son Alexander, had thrown him into prison, the young man retaliated with charges of treason against Pheroras and Salome,