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and former colleague in the consulship, C. Claudius Nero. The long-smothered resentments of these proud and haughty men burst forth again in their censorship, and occasioned no small scandal in the state. Nero appears, however, to have been the aggressor. It so happened that both censors pos­sessed a public horse (equus publicus) ; and accord­ingly, in the muster of the equites, which was one part of the censors' duties, when the herald came to the Tribus Pollia to which Livius belonged, and hesitated to summon the censor, Nero called out "Summon M. Livius," and thereupon ordered his colleague to sell his horse, because he had been condemned by the people. Livius, in retaliation, deprived Nero likewise of his horse. At the close of the census, when the censors had to take the customary oaths and deposit the records of their office in the aerarium, each left the name of his col­league among the aerarians, and Livius, besides, left as aerarians the citizens of all the tribes, with the exception of the Maeclan, because they had condemned him, and had after his condemnation elected him to the consulship and censorship. The indignation of the people at the proceedings of the censors led Cn. Baebius, the tribune of the plebs, to bring an accusation against them both ; but the prosecution was dropt through the influence of the senate, who thought it more advisable to uphold the principle of the irresponsibility of the censor­ship than to inflict upon the delinquents the punish­ment they deserved. Livius, in his censorship, imposed a tax upon salt, in consequence of which he received the surname of Salinator, which seems to have been given him in derision, but which became, notwithstanding, hereditary in his family. (Liv. xxix. 37 ; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. III. 50 ; Val. Max. ii. 9. § 6, vii. 2. § 6.)

2. C. livius salinator, curule aedile b. c. 203, and praetor b.c. 202, in which year he ob­tained Bruttii as his province. In b.c. 193 he fought under the consul against the Boii, and in the same year was an unsuccessful candidate for the consulship (Liv. xxix. 38, xxx. 26, 27, xxxv. 5, 10). He was elected pontifex in B. c. 211, in the place of M'. Pomponius Matho, and died in B. c. 170. (Liv. xxvi. 23, xliii. 11.)

3. C. Livius salinator, was praetor b. c. 191, and had the command of the fleet in the war against Antiochus. He defeated Polyxenidas, the king's admiral, off Corycus, and in the following year prosecuted the war with activity till he was suc­ceeded by L. Aemilius Regillus [polyxenidas]. He was not, however, left unemployed, for in the same year, b.c. 190, he was sent to Lycia, and also to Prusias, king of Bithynia. He was consul b.c. 188, with M. Valerius Messalla, and obtained Gaul as his province, but performed nothing worthy of note. (Liv. xxxv. 24, xxxvi. 2,42—44, xxxvii. 9—14, 16,25, xxxviii. 35 ; Appian, Syr. 22—25.) SALINATOR, O'PPIUS. [Onus, No. 6.] SALLU'STIUS or SALU'STIUS, the name of two or three persons mentioned in Cicero's correspondence.

1. cn. sallustius, whose name frequently occurs, appears to have been a client of Cicero, and was a person of considerable literary attainments (Cic. ad Ait. i. 3, 11, xi. 11, 17, ad Fam. xiv. 4. § 6, xiv. 11, ad Q, Fr. in. 4. § 2, iii. 5. § 1).

2. caninius sallustius, the quaestor of Bi-bulus, proconsul of Syria, to whom one of Cicero's letters is addressed (ad Fam. ii. 17). The name



seems to be corrupt. It has been conjectured that we ought to read C. Annius Sallustianus or Cn. Sallustius.

3. P. sallustius. (Cic. ad Att. xi. 11.)

SALLUSTIUS, or SALU'STIUS (SaAouV-tjos). 1. Praefectus Praetorio (according to Suidas s. v. ~2,a\ov<TTios} under the emperor Julianus. It is probably the same Sallustius who was consul in a. d. 363. Sallustius was a heathen, but, accord­ing to the testimony of Theodoretus, dissuaded the emperor from persecuting the Christians. He ap­pears to have been on terms of friendship with the emperor Julianus, who dedicated to him his fourth oration. Himerius also dedicated one of his treatises to him (Phot. Cod. clxv. p. 108, a, 29, ed. Bekker). It was in all probability this Sallustius who was the author of a treatise Ile/al Sew;/ ko) koctuov, which is still extant. If so, he was attached to the doctrines of the Neo-Platonists.

There are various editions of the above-men­tioned treatise. It is incorporated in Gale's Opus-cula Mythologica. There is also an edition by Orellius, with the version of Leo Allatius, the notes of Lucas Holstenius and Gale, with some by the editor himself (Turici, 1821). There are transla­tions of the work in German by J. C. Arnold and G. Schulthess ; in French by Formey, in his edition of the work (Berlin, a. d. 1748) ; and in English by Thomas Taylor. (Schb'll, Gesch. der Griecli. Lit-teratur, vol. iii. p. 357.)

2. A Cynic philosopher of some note, who lived in the latter part of the fifth century after Christ. His father Basilides was a Syrian ; his mother Theoclea a native of Emesa, where probably Sal­lustius was born, and where he lived during the earlier part of his life. He applied himself first to the study of jurisprudence, and cultivated the art of oratory with considerable diligence under the tuition of Eunoius at Emesa. He subsequently abandoned his forensic studies, and took up the profession of a sophist. He directed his attention especially to the Attic orators, and learnt all the orations of Demosthenes by heart. His own com­positions were deemed not unworthy of the great models whom he imitated. Finding the instructions of Eunoius no longer of service to him, Sallustius betook himself to Alexandria, and studied under the best masters of eloquence that the city afforded. Here too he probably imbibed a taste for phi­losophy ; and, attracted by the fame of the Athenian school, removed to Athens, and attended the lec­tures of Proclus. He soon left the Neo-Platonists however, and took up with the doctrines of the Cynics, which he maintained thenceforward with great ardour. Some curious stories are told of the experiments which he made upon himself to display or increase his power of enduring pain, and his disregard of the ordinary enjoyments of life (Sui­das s. v. xvrrpoTTovs; Simplic. in Epict. p. m. 63). He assailed the philosophers of his time with con­siderable vehemence, to which his powers of ridi­cule gave additional effect. He pronounced phi­losophy to be an impossibility, and dissuaded the young men from resorting to the teachers of it (Suidas, I. c. s. v. 'Adrjvodwpos). Leaving Athens he returned to Alexandria, where he employed his eloquence and wit in attacking the follies or vices of his contemporaries. According to Photius (Cod. ccxlii. p. 342, ed. Bekker), he pretended to a sort of divination or fortune-telling, professing to be able fco tell from the appearance oi a person's eyes

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