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On this page: Sabaces – Sabacon – Sabazius – Sabba



at all; but has received his name, because con­formed to the usage of his monastery. His sup­position that the Typicon was a forgery of Marcus, surnamed Hamartolus (Peccator, the Sinner), is improbable [marcus, No. 16]. The title of the work in Greek, as given in a Vienna MS. cited by Oudin, tvitlkov ttjs eKKXrja-iaffriKTjs a,Ko\ovdias rtfs ev 'le/xxToAujUOis dyias Aavpas tov ooiov Ka\ Scotyopov irarpos tyucoj/ 2a§£a, Typicon, s. Ordo Officii Ecclesiastici Monasterii Hieroslymitani Sancti Patris nostri Sabae, indicates, not that the work was written by S. Saba, but only that it is conformed to the practice of his monastery. (Cyrillus Scythopol. AS. Sabae Vita, apud Coteler. Eccles. Graec. Monu-menta, vol. iii.; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 484, vol. i. p. 457, and vol. ii. Dissert. Secunda, p. 38, &c., ed. Oxon. 1740—1743; Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. x. p. 319 ; Oudin, Commenlar. de Scriptorib. Eccles. vol. i. col. 1394 ; Tillemont, Mem. vol. xvi.)

There were some other persons of the name of Saba (Phot. Biblioth. cod. 52 ; Fabric. I. c.), but they do not require notice. [J. C. M.]

SABACES (SagctKTjs), a Persian, was satrap of Egypt under Dareius III., and was slain at the battle of Issus, in b.c. 333 (Arr. Anab. ii. 11 ; Curt. iii. 8, iv. 1). The name is otherwise written Sataces and Sathaces, and it occurs as Tasiaces in Diod. xvii. 34, according to the common reading. (Wess. ad loc. \ Freinsh. ad Curt. II. cc.) [E. E.J

SABACON (2a§a/cw*/), a king of Ethiopia, who invaded Egypt in the reign of the blind king Any-sis, whom he dethroned and drove into the marshes. The Ethiopian conqueror then reigned over Egypt for 50 years, but at length quitted the country in consequence of a dream, whereupon Anysis regained his kingdom. This is the account which Herodotus received from the priests (ii. 137—140 ; comp. Diod. i. 65) ; but it appears from Manetho, that there were three Ethiopian kings who reigned over Egypt, named Sabacon, Sebichus, and Taracus, and who form the twenty-fifth dynasty of that writer. According to his account Sabacon reigned eight years, Sebichus fourteen, and Taracus eighteen ; or, according to the conjecture of Bunsen, twenty-eight ; their collective reigns being thus 40 or 50 years. The account of Manetho, which is in itself more probable than that of Herodotus, is also con­firmed by the fact that Taracus is mentioned by Isaiah (xxxvii. 9), under the name of Tirhakah. The time at which this dynasty of Ethiopian kings governed Egypt has occasioned some dispute, in consequence of the statement of Herodotus (ii. 140), that it was more than 700 years from the time of Anysis to that of Amyrtaeus. Now as Amyrtaeus reigned over Egypt about b. c. 455, it would follow from this account that the invasion of the Ethiopians took place about b. c. 1150. But this high date is not only in opposition to the state­ments of all other writers, but is at variance with the narrative of Herodotus himself, who says that Psammitichus fled into Syria when his father Necho was put to death by Sabacon (ii. 152), and who represents Sabacon as followed in close suc­cession by Sethon, Sethon by the Dodecarchia and Psammitichus, the latter of whom began to reign about b. c. 671. There is, therefore, probably some corruption in the numbers in the passage of Hero­dotus. There can be little doubt that the Ethiopian dynasty reigned over Egypt in the latter half of the eighth century before the Christian era. They are mentioned in the Jewish records. The So,


king of Egypt, with whom Hosea, king of Israel, made an alliance about b. c. 722 (2 Kings, xvii. 4), was in all probability the same as the second king of the dynasty, Sebichus*; and the Tirhakah, king of the Ethiopians, who was preparing to make war against Sennacherib, in b.c. 711 (Is. xxxvii. 9), is evidently the same as the Taracus of Ma­netho, as has been already remarked. Herodotus speaks of Sethon as king of Egypt at the time of Sennacherib's invasion [sethon] ; but it is evident that the Ethiopian dynasty must have ruled at least over Upper Egypt at this time, for we can hardly refer the statement of Isaiah to an Ethiopian king at Meroe.

The name of Sabacon is not found on monu­ments, as Lepsius has shown, though the contrary is stated by most modern writers. We find, how­ever, on monuments, the name of Shebek and Tek-rak. Shebek is the Sebichus of Manetho, and Bunsen has conjectured, with some probability, that the two first kings of the dynasty both bore this name, and that Manetho only gave the name of Sabacon to the first, as it was so well known through the history of Herodotus. Sabacon and Sebichus, however, bear so great a resemblance to one another, that they are probably merely different forms of the same name. (Bunsen, Aegyptens Stelle in der Weltgeschichte, vol. iii. pp. 137, 138.)

SABAZIUS (2a§a'£os), a Phrygian divinity, commonly described as a son of Rhea or Cybele ; but in later times he was identified with the mystic Dionysus, who hence is sometimes called Dionysus Sabazius. (Aristoph. Av. 873 ; Hesych. s. v.) For the same reason Sabazius is called a son of Zeus by Persephone, and is said to have been reared by a nymph Ny ssa; though others, by philo­ sophical speculations, were led to consider him a son of Cabeirus, Dionysus, or Cronos. He was torn by the Titans into seven pieces. (Joan. Lydus, De Mens. p. 82 ; Orph. Fragm. viii. 46, p. 469, ed. Herm., Hymn. 47 ; Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23.) The connection of Sabazius with the Phrygian mother of the gods accounts for the fact that he was identified, to a certain extent, with Zeus him­ self, who is mentioned as Zeus Sabazius, both Zeus and Dionysus having been brought up by Cybele or Rhea. (Val. Max. i. 3. § 4.) His wor­ ship and festivals (Sabazia) were also introduced into Greece ; but, at least in the time of Demos­ thenes, it was not thought reputable to take part in them, for they were celebrated at night by both sexes with purifications, initiations, and immora­ lities. (Diod. iv. 4 ; Demosth. de Coron. p. 313 ; Strab. x. p. 471 ; Aristoph. Vesp. 9, Lysistr. 389.) Serpents, which were sacred to him, acted a prominent part at the Sabazia and in the pro­ cessions (Clemens Alex. Protrept. p. 6 ; Theo- phrast. Char. 16): the god himself was repre­ sented with horns, because, it is said, he was the first that voked oxen to the plough for agriculture. (Diod. iv."4.] [L. S.]

SABBA (2ag§77), a daughter of Berosus and Erymanthe, is mentioned among the Sibyls ; but it is uncertain as to whether she was the Baby-lonian, Egyptian, Chaldaean, or Jewish Sibyl.

* So is in Hebrew fr^lD, which may have been pronounced originally Sova or Seva, and which would then bear a still stronger resemblance to Sebichus.

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