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RHAMPHIAS ('Pastas), a Lacedaemonian, father of Clearchus (Thuc. viii. 8, 39 ; Xen. Hell. i. 1. § 35), was one of the three ambassadors who were sent to Athens in b. c. 432, with the final demand of Sparta for the independence of all the Greek states. The demand was refused, and the Pelo-ponnesian war ensued. (Thuc. i. 139, &c.) In b. c. 422 Rhamphias, with two colleagues, commanded a force of 900 men, intended for the strengthening of Brasidas in Thrace ; but their passage through. Thessaly was opposed by the Thessalians, and, hearing also of the battle of Amphipolis and the death of Brasidas, they returned to Sparta. (Thuc. v. 12, 13.) [E. E.]
RHAMPSINITUS ('Pa/^n-os), called .Rhem-phis by Diodorus, one of the ancient kings of Egypt, is said to have succeeded Proteus, and to have been himself succeeded by Cheops. This king is said to have possessed immense wealth, and in order to keep it safe he had a treasury built of stone, respecting the robbery of which Herodotus relates a romantic story, which bears a great resemblance to the one told by Pausanias (ix. 37. § 4) respecting the treasury built by the two brothers Agamedes and Trophonius of Orcho-menus [agamedes]. Rhampsinitus is said to have built the western propylaea of the temple of Hephaestus, and to have placed in front of it two large statues, each of the size of twenty-five cubits, which the Egyptians called Summer and Winter. It is further stated that this king descended to Hades and played a game at dice with Demeter, and on his return to the earth a festival was instituted in honour of the goddess (Herod, ii. 121, 122 ; Diod. i. 62). Rhampsinitus belongs to the twentieth dynasty according to Bunsen, and is known on inscriptions by the name of Ramessu Neter-hek-pen (Bunsen, Aegyptens Stelle in der WeltgescMchte. vol. iii. pp. 119, 120).
RHASCUPORIS ('Pao-/cou7rops). 1. Brother of Rhascus, and with him chieftain of a Thracian clan, whose territories extended from the northern shores of the Propontis to the Hebrus and the neighbourhood of Philippi. Whether the clan were that of the Sapaei or the Korpalli, or comprised both races, is uncertain. But it occupied both the mountain ridge that skirts the Propontis and the southern plains which lie between the base of Mount Rhodope and the sea (comp. Appian, B. C. iv. 87, 105 ; Tac. Ann. ii. 64 ; Plin. H. N. iv. 11 (18)). We can only thus explain the seeming inconsistency in Appian's account of these chieftains ; for he describes their territory as a lofty, cold, and woody region, and yet assigns to them a powerful body of cavalry. In the civil war, b. c. 49 — 48, Rhascuporis joined Cn. Pompey, with 200 horse, at Dyrrachium ; and in the war that followed Caesar's death, he aided Cassius with 3000, while his brother Rhascus, at the head of an equal number of cavalry, embraced the cause of the trium-
virs. According to Appian this was a politic and provident device for mutual security ; and it was agreed beforehand that the brother whose party was triumphant, should obtain the pardon of the brother whose party was vanquished. And so, after the victory at Philippi, Rhascuporis owed his life to the intercession of Rhascus. Each brother rendered good service to his respective party. When the road from Asia into Macedonia, by Aenos and Maroneia, had been preoccupied by the triumviral legions, Rhascuporis, in whose dominions the passes were, led the armies of Brutus and Cassius by a road through the forest, known only to himself and Rhascus. And Rhascus, on the other hand, by his local knowledge, detected the march of the enemy, and saved his allies from being cut off in the rear. (Caes. B. C. iii. 4 ; Appian. B. C. iv. 87,103—106, 136 ; Lucan. Pharsal. v. 55 ; Dion Cass. xlvii. 25.) For the varieties in the orthography of Rhascuporis, e. g., Rhascy-polis, Rascyporis, Thrascypolis, &c., see Fabricius, ad Dion Cass. xlvii. 25 ; Adrian, Turneb. Adversar. xiv. 17. On the coins we meet with BcKn'Aeos 'Pao-KoviropiSos (Gary, Hist, des Rois de Thrace, pi. 2), and 'PaiffKoviropidos (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 59). Lucan (I.e., ed. Oudendorp) calls him "gelidae dominum Rhascupolin orae."
2. Brother of Rhoemetalces, king of Thrace, and jointly with him defeated, a. d. 6, the Dalmatians and Breucians in Macedonia f bato, No. 2]. On the death of Rhoemetalces, Rhascuporis received from Augustus a portion of his dominions, the remainder being awarded to his nephew Cotys, son of the deceased [cotys, No. 5], Rhascuporis was discontented, either with his share of Thrace — the barren mountainous district had been assigned him,—or with divided power ; but so long as Augustus lived he did not dare to disturb the apportionment. On the emperor's decease, however, he invaded his nephew's kingdom, and hardly desisted at Tiberius' command. Next, on pretence of an amicable adjustment, Rhascuporis invited his nephew to a conference, seized his person, and threw him into prison ; and finally, thinking a completed crime safer than an imperfect one, put him to death. To Tiberius Rhascuporis alleged the excuse of self-defence, and that the arrest and murder of his nephew merely prevented his own assassination. The emperor, however, summoned the usurper to Rome, that the matter might be investigated, and Rhascuporis, on pretext of war with the Scythian Bastarnae, began to collect an army. But he was enticed into the Roman camp by Pomponius Flac-cus [No. 2], propraetor of Mysia, sent to Rome, condemned, and relegated to Alexandria, where an excuse was presently found for putting him to death, A. d. 19. He left a son, Rhoemetalces, who succeeded to his father's moiety of Thrace. (Tac. Ann. ii. 64—67, iii. 38 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 129 ; Suet. Tib. 37; Dion Cass.lv. 30.)
3. Son of Cotys (probably No. 4), was defeated and slain in battle by Vologaeses, chief of the Thracian Bessi, and leader of the general revolt of Thrace against the Romans in b. c. 13. (Dion Cass. liv. 34 ; comp. Veil. Pat. ii. 98.) [W. B. D.]
RHASCUS ('Pao-Kos), was one of the two chieftains of a Thracian clan. In the civil wars of Rome, B. c. 43, 42, he espoused the party of Augustus and M. Antony, while his brother Rhascuporis embraced that of Brutus and Cassius. After the victory of the triumvirs at Philippi, Rhascus
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