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QUADRATUS.

about A. D. 51, and continued to govern it till his death in A. i). 60. Only three circumstances are mentioned in connection with his administration. In A.d. 52 he allowed Rhadamistus to dethrone and put to death Mithridates, the king of Armenia, whom Tiberius had placed upon the throne, and whom the Romans had hitherto supported. In the same year he marched into Judaea, and put down the disturbances which preA'ailed in that country. lie is said to have condemned, or, ac­cording to other accounts, to have sent to the em­peror Claudius for trial, Ventidius Cumanus, one of the procuratores, but to have protected Antonius Felix, the other procurator. [Comp. felix, p. 143, a.] The other circumstance is his disagreement with Domitius Corbulo, who had been sent into the East to conduct the war against the Parthians. His name occurs on one of the coins of Antioch. (Joseph. Ant. xx. 5. § 2, B. J. ii. 12. §§5, 6 ; Tac. Ann. xii. 45, &c., 54, xiii. 8, 9, xiv. 26 ; Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 280.) In the editions of Tacitus the praenomen of Quadratus is Titus^ but it appears from an inscription that this is a mistake, and that his real praenomen was Caius. (Orelli, Inscr. 3665.) We learn from the same inscription that his full name was C. Ummidius Durmius Quadratus, and that he had been previously the legatus of Caligula in Lusitania. The Ummidia Quadratilla, whose death in the reign of Trajan is mentioned by Pliny [quadratilla], was in all probability a sister of the above. She could hardly have been a daughter, as some modern writers have supposed, since she had a grandson of the age of twenty-four and upwards at the time of her death [see below, No. 2], and it is not probable that Ummidius, who died in a.d. 60, could have had a great-grand­son of that age about a. d. 100.

2. ummidius quadratus, a friend and ad­mirer of the younger Pliny, whom he took as his model in oratory. Pliny speaks of him in the highest terms, and praises both his abilities and his excellent moral character. He was the grand­son of the wealthy Ummidia Quadratilla, and in­herited two-thirds of her property. [quadra­tilla.] In the estate thus bequeathed to him was the house formerly inhabited by the celebrated jurist Cassius Longinus. He married at the age of twenty-four, in the life-time of his grandmother, but lost his wife soon after their marriage. (Plin. Ep. vi. 11, vii. 24.) Two of Pliny's letters are addressed to him (Ep. vi. 29, ix. 13), in the latter of which Pliny gives an account of the celebrated attack which he made upon Publicius Certus in the senate, in the reign of Nerva, A. d. 96.

3. ummidius quadratus, is mentioned as one of the persons whom Hadrian persecuted. (Spartian. Hadr. 15.) He may have been a son of No. 2, who probably married again after the time that Pliny's letter was written. It seems to have been this Quadratus who married the sister of Antoninus Pius.

4. M. ummidius quadratus, the son of No. 3, was the nephew of Antoninus Pius, being his sister's son. Antoninus Pius gave his maternal property to this Quadratus. (Capitol. M. Aurel. 7, where he is in some editions erroneously called Mummius Quadratus.) He was consul in a.d. 167, with M. Aurelius Verus.

5. ummidius quadratus, the son of No. 4, was induced by Lucilla to enter into a conspiracy against her brother Commodus, by whom he was

QUADRIGARltJS.

put to death, a. d. 183. (Herodian. i. 8 ; Lamprid. Com mod. 4 ; Dion Cass. Ixxii. 4.)

QUADRATUS, C. VOLUSE'NUS, a tribune of the soldiers in Caesar's army in Gaul, is de­scribed as " vir et consilii magni et virtutis." He held the rank of Praefectus equitum under his old commander in the campaign against Pompey in Greece, in b. c. 48. (Caes. B. G. iii. 5, viii. 23, B. C. iii. 60.) He was tribune of the plebs, b.c. 43, and one of the supporters of Antony. (Cic. Phil. xiv. 7. § 21, where the correct reading is idem Ventidium, cum alii praetorem^ tribunum Volusenum, ego semper koste?n.)

QUADRIFRONS, a surname of Janus. It is said that after the conquest of the Faliscans an image of Janus was found with four foreheads. Hence afterwards a temple of Janus quadrifrons was built in the Forum transitorium, which had four gates. The fact of the god being represented with four heads is considered by the ancients to be an indication of his being the divinity presiding over the year with its four seasons. (Serv. ad Aen. vii. 607 ; Isid. Orig. viii. 11 ; August. De Civ. Dei, vii. 4.) [L. S.]

QUADRIGARIUS, Q. CLAU'DIUS, a Roman historian who flourished about b.c. 100 (Veil. Pat. ii. 9). His work, which is generally quoted under the title Annales (Gell. ix. 13. § 6), sometimes as Hisloriae (Priscian. p. 697, ed. Putsch.) and some­times as Rerum Romanarum Libri (Non. s. v. pristis\ commenced immediately after the destruc­tion of Rome by the Gauls, and must in all proba­bility have extended down to the death of Sulla, since there were at least twenty-three books (Gell. x. 13), and the seventh consulship of Marius was commemorated in the nineteenth.

The first book embraced the events comprised in the period from b. c. 390 down to the subjugation of the Samnites. The struggle with Pyrrhus was the chief subject of the second and third ; the first Punic war commenced in the third, and was con­tinued through the fourth ; the second Punic war commenced in the fifth, which contained the battle of Cannae ; the siege of Capua was included in the sixth ; the hostilities with the Achaean league and Numantia in the eighth, and the seventh consulship of Marius in the nineteenth, as was remarked above.

By Livy he is uniformly referred to simply as Claudius or Clodius, and is thus distinguished from Clodius Licinius (Liv. xxix. 22), and from " Clau­dius qui Annales Acilianos ex Graeco in Latinum sermonem vertit." (Liv. xxv. 39. Comp. xxxv. 14.) By other authors he is cited as Quintus (Priscian. p. 960, ed. Putsch), as Claudius (Non. Marcell. s. v. Reticulum), as Q. Claudius (Gell. ix. 13. § 6 ; Priscian. p. 797, ed. Putsch.), as Claudius Quadri-garius (Non. Marcell. s. v. Torquem ; Gell. ii. 19. § 7), or as Quadrigarius (Non. Marcell. s. v. Pos-setur; Gell. i. 25. § 6.)

The fragments still extant enable us to conclude that he was very minute in many of his details, for several particulars recorded by him were omitted by Livy (e. g. Gell. v. 17 ; Macrob. Sat. \. 16; comp. Liv. viii. 19, xxxviii. 41.) ; while from the caution evinced by the latter in making use of him as an authority (Liv. vi. 42, viii. ] 9, ix. 5, x. 37, xxxiii. 10, 30, 36, xxxviii. 23, 41, xliv. 15 ; comp. Oros. iv. 20), especially in matters relating to numbers, it would appear that he was disposed to indulge, although in a less degree, in those exag-

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