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daspes. The drama was in ridicule of Harpalus and the Athenians. It is twice mentioned by • Athenaeus, who has preserved nearly twenty lines of it. (Ath. xiii. p. 586, d., p. 595, e. f., p. 596, a.) In the second of these passages, Athenaeus men­tions the poet as either of Catana or of Byzantium ; and it seems very doubtful whether he was con­founded with the Byzantine rhetorician of the same name, who makes some figure in the history of Philip and Alexander, or whether he was really the same person. Some writers ascribed the drama to Alexander, but no doubt erroneously. Respect­ing the meaning of the title of the play, 'Ayrf?, there are various conjectures, all of them very uncertain. (Casaub. de Poes. Sat. Graec. pp.150, 151, with Rambach's Note ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 319, 320 ; Wagner, F. G., Poetarum Trag. Graec. Fragmenta, pp. 134—136, inDidot's Bibl. Script. Graec. Paris, 1846.)

2. Of Aenus, in Thrace, a Peripatetic philo-sopherj who, with his brother Heracleides, put to death the tyrant Cotys. [CoTYS, heracleides.]

3. A Peripatetic philosopher, mentioned in the will of Lycon. (Diog. Laert. v. 70.) [P. S.]

PYTHON, artist. This name occurs twice on painted vases ; in the first instance, on a cylix- shaped vase, of the best style of the art, found at Vulci, with the inscription FV0ON EFOIE^EN, and with the name of Epictetus as the painter ; in the other case, on a Lucanian vase, of the period of the decline of the art, with the inscription nT®HN EFFACE. On comparing these vases, and the inscriptions on them, although there are examples of the same person being both a maker and painter of vases, it can hardly be doubted that, in this case, the artists were two different persons, at different periods, and probably living in dif­ ferent parts of Italy. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, pp. 58, 59, 2d ed.) [P. S.]

PYTHONFCUS (n^oVi/cos), of Athens, a writer mentioned by Athenaeus (v. p. 220, f.) among those who wrote systematically on allure­ ments to love, [W. M. G.]

QUADRATILLA, UMMFDIA, a wealthy Roman lady, who died in the reign of Trajan within a little of eighty years of age, leaving two-thirds (ex besse) of her fortune to her grandson and the other third to her granddaughter (Plin. Ep. vii. 24). Her grandson was an intimate friend of Pliny. [quadratus, No. 2.] Quadratilla was probably a sister of Ummidius Quadratus, the go­vernor of Syria, who died in A. d. 60, and appears to be the same as the Quadratilla mentioned in the following inscription, discovered at Casinum in Campania: — Ummidia C. F. Quadratilla amphi-tJteatrum et templum Casinatibus sua pecunia fecit. (Orelli, Inscr. No. 781.) It seems that the Ummidii came originally from Casinum. [um­midia gens.]

QUADRATUS (KoSparos, Euseb. //. E., Syn-cellus, and the Greek Menaea; or KouaSparos, Euseb. Chron. p. 211, ed. Scaliger, 1658), one of the Apostolic Fathers and an early apologist for the Christian religion. The name of Quadratus occurs repeatedly in Eusebius (PI. E. iii. 37, iv. 3, 23, v. 17, Chron. lib. ii.), but it is questioned whether that father speaks of one person or of


two. Valesius, and others (including TilleniGiit) after him, contend for the existence of two Quadrati, one the disciple of the Apostles and the Apologist, the other, bishop of Athens and contemporary witli Dionysius of Corinth [DiONYSius, literary, No. 22], who was of somewhat later date than the Apologist. But Jerome, among the ancients, and Cave, Grabe, Le Clerc, and Fabricius, among the moderns, refer the different notices, and we think correctly, to one person.

Quadratus is said by Eusebius (Chron. I. e.), Jerome (De Viris Illustr. c. 19, and Ad Mag-num, c. 4, Epistol. 84, edit, vet., 83, ed. Bene-dictin., 70, ed. Vallars.), and Orosius (Hist. vii. 13), to have been a hearer or disciple " of the Apostles," an expression which Cave would limit by referring the term " Apostles" to the Apostle John alone, or by understanding it of men of the apostolic age, who had been familiar with the Apostles. But we see no reason for so limiting or explaining the term. Quadratus himself, in his Apology (apud Euseb. H. E. iv. 3), speaks of those who had been cured or raised from the dead by Jesus Christ, as having lived to his own days (et's toi)s r^erepous1 xp°vovsi " a(l tempora nostra"), thus carrying back his own recollections to the apostolic age. And as Eusebius, in a passage in which he ascribes to him the gift of prophecy, seems to connect him with the daughters of the Apostle Philip, we may rather suppose him to have been a disciple of that Apostle than of John. Cave con­jectures that he was an Athenian by birth ; but the manner in which an anonymous writer cited by Eusebius (H. E. v. 17) mentions him, in connec­tion with Ammias of Philadelphia and with the daughters of Philip, would lead us to place him in early life in the central districts of Asia Minor. He afterwards (assuming that Eusebius speaks of one Quadratus, not two) became bishop of the Church at Athens, but at what time we have no means of ascertaining. We learn that he succeeded the martyr Publius ; but, as the time of Publius' mar­tyrdom is unknown, that circumstance throws no light on the chronology of his life. Quadratus pre­sented his Apology to Hadrian, in the tenth year of his reign (a. d. 126), according to the Chronicon of Eusebius, but we know not whether he had yet attained the episcopate. As Eusebius does not give him in this place the title of bishop, the pro­bable inference is that he had not; but, as the passage seems to intimate that he and the Athe­nian Aristeides presented their respective Apologies simultaneously, it is likely that Quadratus was already connected with the Athenian Church. The Menaea of the Greeks (a. d. Sept. 21) commemo­rate the martyrdom under the emperor Hadrian of the " ancient and learned" Quadratus, who had preached the gospel at Magnesia and Athens, and being driven away from his flock at Athens, ob­tained at length the martyr's crown ; and the Me-nologium of the emperor Basil commemorates (a. d. 21 Sept.) the martyrdom of a Quadratus, bishop of Magnesia, in the persecution under Decius. That our Quadratus was a martyr is, we think, from the silence of Eusebius and Jerome to such a circum­stance, very questionable ; and that he was mar­tyred under Hadrian, is inconsistent with the state­ment of those writers (Euseb. Chron. ; Hieronym. Ad Magnum, c. 4), that the Apologies of Quadra-tns and Aristeides led that emperor to put a stop to the persecution. We think it not an improbable

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