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On this page: Pythius – Pythocleides – Pythocles – Pythocritus – Pythodicus – Pythodoris – Pythodorus – Python



banqueted him and his whole army. He had pre­ viously sent a golden plane tree and vine as a present to Dareius. He informed Xerxes that, in­ tending to offer him a quantity of money to defray the expenses of his expedition, he had reckoned up his wealth and found it to consist of 2000 talents of silver coin and 4,000,000, all but 7000, darics of gold coin. The whole of this he offered to Xerxes, who however did not accept it; but made him a present of the odd 7000 darics, and granted him the rights of hospitality. His five sons accompanied Xerxes. Pythius, alarmed by an eclipse of the sun which happened, came to Xerxes, and begged that the eldest might be left behind. This request so enraged the king that he had the young man immediately killed and cut in two, and the two portions of his body placed on either side of the road, and then ordered the army to march between them. His other sons perished in different battles. Pythius, overwhelmed with grief, passed the rest of his days in solitude (Herod, vii. 27—29, 38, 39; Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 10; Plut. I. c.). [C. P. M.J

PYTHIUS, architect. [phileus].

PYTHOCLEIDES (IIwflo/rAefSijs), a celebrated musician of the time of Pericles, was a native of Ceos (Plat. Protag. 316, e.), and flourished at Athens, under the patronage of Pericles, whom he instructed in his art. (Plut. Per. 4 ; Pseudo- Plat. Akib. i. p. 118, c.). The Scholiast on the passage last cited states that Pythocleides was also a Pythagorean philosopher, and that Agathocles was his disciple. Pythocleides was one of those musicians to whom some writers ascribed the invention of the Mixolydian mode of music. (Pint. de Mus. 16, p. 1136, d.). [P. S.]

PYTHOCLES (nu0oK\Tjs). 1. An Athenian orator, who belonged to the Macedonian party, and was put to death with Phocion in b.c. 317. (Dem. de Cor. p. 320 ; Plut. PJioc. 35.)

2. Of Samos, a Greek writer of uncertain date, wrote: — 1. 'IraAi/ca (Plut. Parall. min. c. 14 ; Clem. Alex. Strom.'i. p. 144). 2. Tewpyuta, (Plut. Parall. min. c. 41). 3. Hep] 6/jLovoias (Clem. Protr. p. 12.)

PYTHOCLES, a statuary, of whom nothing is known, beyond the mention of his name by Pliny among those artists whom he places at the revival of the art in 01. 156, and whom he characterizes as longe quidem infra praedictos, probati tamen. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. 8. 19.) [P. S.]

PYTHOCRITUS (n^o'/cptros), of Sicyon, a flute-player, exceedingly distinguished for his vic­ tories in the musical contests which were instituted by the Amphictyons at the Pythian games (b. c. 590). Pausanias tells us that the first victor in these contests was the Argive Sacadas, after whom Pythocritus carried off the prize at six Pythian festivals in succession, and that he had also the honour of acting six times as musician during the pentathlon at Olympia. In reward of these ser­ vices a pillar was erected as a monument to him at Olympia, with the following inscription, UvQo- jcpirov rov Ka\\iviKOu /xm/xa TauATjra roSe. (Paus. vi. 14. § 4. s. 9, 10). [P. S.]

PYTHOCRITUS, a statuary, who is men­ tioned by Pliny as one of those who made aihletas et armatos et venatores sacrificantesque^ but of whom nothing more is known. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s.19. §34). [P.S.] PYTHODA'MUS, a medallist, whose name


occurs on a coin of Aptera in Crete. (Nagler, All- gem. Kunstler-Lexicon, s. -y.) [P. S.]

PYTHODICUS, one of the statuaries, who are mentioned by Pliny as aequalitate celebrati sed nullis operum suorum praecipui. (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. §25.) [P. S.]

PYTHODORIS (Uv9o$a>pis)9 queen of Pontus. She was the daughter of Pythodorus of Tralles, the friend of Pompey : and became the wife of Polemon I. king of Pontus, and the Bosporus. After the death of Polemon she retained possession of Colchis as well as of Pontus itself, though the kingdom of Bosporus was wrested from her power. She subsequently married Archelaus, king of Cap- padocia, but after his death (a. d. 17) returned to her own kingdom, of which she continued to administer the affairs herself until her decease, which probably did not take place until a. d. 38. She is said by her contemporary Strabo to have been a woman of virtuous character, and of great capacity for business, so that her dominions flou­ rished much under her rule. Of her two sons, the one, Zenon, became king of Armenia, while the other, Polemon, after assisting her in the admi­ nistration of her kingdom during her life, suc­ ceeded her on the throne of Pontus. (Strab. xi. p. 499, xii. pp. 555, 556, 557, 560, xiv. p. 649 ; Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 370.) [E. H. B.]

PYTHODORUS (IIu0o'5&>pos), artists. 1. A Theban sculptor, of the archaic period, who made the statue of Hera (ayaX/j-a, apxcuW) in her temple at Coroneia. The goddess was represented as holding the Sirens in her hand. (Paus. ix. 34. § 2. s. 3 ; comp. Muller, ArcJidol. d. Kunst, § 352, n. 4.)

2, 3. Two sculptors, who flourished under the early Roman emperors, and are mentioned by Pliny among those who " filled the palace of the Caesars on the Palatine with most approved works." (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 11 ; comp. Thiersch, Epoclien, pp. 300, 325, foil.) [P. S.]

PYTHON (Iluflcoz/), the famous dragon who guarded the oracle of Delphi, is described as a son of Gaea. He lived in the caves of mount Par­ nassus, but was killed by Apollo, who then took possession of the oracle. (Apollod. i. 4. § 1 ; Strab. ix. p. 422.) [L. S.]

PYTHON (IIuW), historical. Concerning the frequent confusion between this name and those of Peithon and Pithon, see pithon.

1. SonofAgenor. [pithon.]

2. Son of Crateuas. [pithon.]

3. One of the leading citizens of Abdera, who betrayed that city into the hands of Eumenes II., king of Pergainus ; an act of treachery which afterwards caused him so much remorse, as to be the occasion of his death. (Diod. xxx. Exc. Vales, p. 578.)

4. The chief of the embassy sent by Prusias, king of Bithynia, to Rome, in b.c. 164, to lay before the senate his complaints against Eumenes, king of Pergamus. (Polyb. xxxi. 6.)

5. A citizen of Enna, in Sicily, who was put to death by Eunus (whose master he had been), in the great servile insurrection in b. c. 130. [eunus.] (Diod. Exc. Phot. p. 528.) [E. H. B.]

PYTHON (nu&yy), literary. 1. Of Catana, a dramatic poet of the time of Alexander, whom he accompanied into Asia, and whose army he entertained with a satyric drama, when they were celebrating the Dionysia on the banks of the Hy-

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