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which Pliny describes his works is extremely cor­rupt, but it can be pretty well corrected by the help of Pausanias. (Respecting the correction of the text, see Sillig, Cat. Art. s. v., and edition of Pliny, with Janus's supplement; and Thiersch, Epocken, pp. 216,217). Besides the statue of Astylus already mentioned, and the pancratiast at Delphi by which he gained his victory over Myron, he also made the statues of Leontiscus of Messana, an Olympic victor in wrestling (Paus. vi. 4. § 2), of Protolaus of Mantineia (vi. 6. § 1), of Euthymus, a very beautiful work of art (ib. § 2. s. 6), of Dromeus of Stymphalus (vi. 7. § 3. s. 10), of Mnaseas of Cyrene,who was known by the sur­name of Libys, and of his son Cratisthenes, who was represented in a chariot, with a Victory by his side (vi. 13. § 4. s. 7, 18. §1). His other works, mentioned by Pliny, are, a naked figure carrying apples, perhaps Hercules with the golden apples of the Hesperides ; a lame figure, at Syra­cuse, called Claudicans, " the pain of whose wound even the spectator seems to feel," a description which almost certainly indicates a Philoctetes ; two statues of Apollo, the one slaying the serpent Python with his arrows, the other playing the harp, of which two statues the latter was known by the surname of Dicaeus^ from a story that, when Thebes was taken by Alexander, a fugitive hid his money in the bosom of the statue, and found it afterwards in safety. There are still other works


of Pythagoras, mentioned by other authors, namely, a winged Perseus (Dion Chrysost. Orat. 37, vol. ii. p. 106, ed. Reiske) ; Europa sitting on the bull (Tartan, adv. Graec. 53, p. 116, ed. Worth ; Varro, L. L. v. 6. § 31) ; Eteocles and Polyneices dying by their mutual fratricide (ibid. 54, p. 118) ; and a statue of Dionysus, mentioned in an epigram by Proclus, in which, though the name of Pythagoras does not occur, we can hardly be wrong in apply­ing to him the epithet 'Ptiyivov (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 446, No. 5 ; Jacobs, Append. Anili. Pal. vol. ii. p. 782, No. 69).

There are still extant various medals, gems, and bas-reliefs, on which there is a figure of Philoc­tetes, which some antiquaries believe to be after the type of the statue by Pythagoras, but the matter is quite uncertain.

Pliny tells us that Pythagoras had for a pupil his sister's son, Sostratus (I. c. § 5).

2. Of Samos, a statuary, whom Pliny (L c. § 5) expressly distinguishes from the former, to whom, however, he says, the Samian bore a remarkable personal likeness. He was at first a painter, and was celebrated as the maker of seven naked statues, and one of an old man, which, in Pliny's time, stood near the temple of Fortune, which Catulus had erected out of the spoils of the Cimbri. (This is the meaning of Pliny's expression, hujusce die.} There is no indication of his date, unless we were to accept the opinion of Sillig, already noticed, that Pliny's date of 01. 87 ought to be re­ ferred to this artist rather than to Pythagoras of Rhegium. [P. S.]

PYTHANGELUS (UvOdyy^o^ an Athe­nian tragic poet at the close of the fifth century B. c., who is only known by one passage in Aristophanes (Ran. 87), which is, however, quite enough to show the sort of estimation in which he was held. Aristophanes places him at the very foot of the anti-climax of tragedians who were still living, and the question of Hercules, whether



he is likely to supply the void left by the death of Euripides, does not even obtain an answer, except by a jest of Xanthias. [P. S.]

PYTHEAS (nw0e'ay), historical. 1. The son of Lampon, of Aegina, was a conqueror in the Nemean games, and his victory is celebrated in one of Pindar's odes (Nem. v). He is in all probability the same as the Pytheas who distinguished him­self in the Persian wars [No. 2], since we know that the latter had a son of the name of Lampon.

2. Or pythes, the son of Ischenous, of Aegina, was in one of the three Greek guard-ships sta­tioned off the island of Sciathus, which were taken by the Persians shortly before the battle of Ther­mopylae. Pytheas distinguished himself by his bravery in the engagement, and was in conse­quence treated by the Persians with distinguished honour. At the battle of Salamis the Sidonian ship, in which he was kept as a prisoner, was taken by an Aeginetan vessel, and he thus reco­vered his liberty. Lampon, the son of this Pytheas, was present at the battle of Plataea, and urged Pausanias, after the engagement, to avenge the death of Leonidas by insulting and mutilating the corpse of Mardonius. (Herod, vii. 181, viii.. 92, ix. 78 ; Paus. Hi. 4. § 10.)

3. Or pythes, of Abdera, the father of Nym-phodorus. (Herod, vii. 137.) [nymphodorus.]

4. An Athenian orator, distinguished by his unceasing animosity against Demosthenes. He was self-educated, and, on account of the harshness and inelegance of his style, was not reckoned among the Attic orators by the grammarians. (Suidas, s. v.; Syrian, ad Hermog. 16 ; comp. Phil. Plioc. 21.) His private character was bad. and he had no political principles, but changed sides as often as suited his convenience or his in­terest. He made no pretensions to honesty. On being reproached on one occasion as a rascal, he frankly admitted the charge, but urged that he had been so for a shorter time than any of his con­temporaries who took part in public affairs. (Aelian, V. H. xiv. 28.) Suidas relates (s. v.) that having been imprisoned on account of a debt, probably a fine incurred in a law-suit (5ia o^Arj/xa), he made his escape from prison and fled to Macedonia, and that after remaining there for a time, he returned to Athens. The statement that he was unable to pay his debts is confirmed by the account of the author of the Letters which go under the name of Demo­sthenes (Ep. 3. p. 1481, ed. Reiske), where it is re­lated that Pytheas had acquired such a large fortune by dishonest means that he could at that time pay five talents with more ease than five drachmas for­merly. We learn from the same authority that he obtained the highest honours at Athens, and was in particular entrusted with the distinguished duty of offering the sacrifices at Delphi for the Athenians. He Avas accused by Deinarchus of ^evia (Dionys. Deinarch. ; Harpocrat. s. v. Swpwv ypatyrj ; Steph. !yz. s. v. Atyivai), probably on account of his long residence at Macedonia. Of the part that he took in political affairs only two or three facts are re­corded. He opposed the honours which the Athe­nians proposed to confer upon Alexander (Plut. Praec. gerend. JReip. p. 804, b, An Seni ger. resp. p. 784, c), but he afterwards espoused the interests of the Macedonian party. He accused Demosthenes of having received bribes from Harpalns. (Dem. Ep. L c. ; Plut. Vit. X Orat. p. 846, c ; Phot. Bibl. Cod. 265 ; Dionys. Isaeus, 4.) In the Lamian

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