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PUBLTCOLA,

of these suspicions, he stopt the building ; and the people, ashamed of their conduct, granted him a piece of ground at the foot of the Velia, with the privilege of having the door of his house open back into the street. When Valerius appeared before the people he ordered the lictors to lower the fasces before them, as an acknowledgment that their power was superior to his. Not content with this mark of submission, he brought forward laws in defence of the republic and in support of the liberties of the people. One law enacted that whoever attempted to make himself a king should be devoted to the gods, and that any one who liked might kill him ; and another law declared, that every citizen who was condemned by a magistrate should have the right of appeal to the people. Now as the pa­tricians possessed this right under the kings, it is probable that the law of Valerius conferred the same privilege upon the plebeians. By these laws, as well as by the lowering of his fasces before the people, Valerius became so great a favourite, that he received the surname of Publicola, or " the people's friend," by which name he is more usually known. As soon as these laws had been passed, Publicola held the comitia for the election of a successor to Brutus ; and Sp. Lucretius Tricipitinus was ap­pointed as his colleague. Lucretius, however, did not live many days, and accordingly M. Horatius Pulvillus was elected consul in his place. Each of the consuls was anxious to dedicate the temple on the Capitol, which Tarquin had left unfinished when he was driven from the throne ; but the lot gave the honour to Horatius, to the great mortifi­cation of Publicola and his friends. [pulvillus.] Some writers, however, place the dedication of the temple two years later, b. c. 507, in the third con­sulship of Publicola, and the second of Horatius Pulvillus. (Dionys, v. 21 ; Tac. Hist. iii. 72.)

Next year, which was the second year of the republic, b. c. 508, Publicola was elected consul again with T. Lucretius Tricipitinus. In this year most of the annalists placed the expedition of Porsena against Rome, of whjich an account has been given elsewhere [porsena]. In the follow­ing year, b. c. 507, Publicola was elected consul a third time with M. Horatius Pulvillus, who had been his colleague in his first consulship, or accord­ing to other accounts, with P. Lucretius ; but no event of importance is recorded under this year. He was again consul a fourth time in b. c. 504 with T. Lucretius Tricipitinus, his colleague in his second consulship. In this year he defeated the Sabines and entered Rome a second time in triumph. His death is placed in the following year (b. c. 503) by the annalists (Liv. ii. 16), probably, as Niebuhr has remarked, simply because his name does not occur again in the Fasti. Niebuhr supposes that the ancient lays made him perish at the lake Regillus, at which two of his sons were said to have been killed (Dionys. vi. 12), and at which so many heroes of the infant commonwealth met their death. He was buried at the public ex­pense, and the matrons mourned for him ten months, as they had done for Brutus. (Liv. i. 58,59, ii. 2, 6 —8, 11, 15, 16 ; Dionys. iv. 67, v. 12, &c. 20, 21, 40, &c.; Plut. Public, passim ; Cic. de Rep. ii. 31 ; Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. pp. 498, &c. 525, 529, &c. 558, 559.)

2. P. valerius P. f. volusi n. publicola, sou of the preceding, was consul for the first time b. c. 475, with C. Nautius Rutilus, conquered the

PUBLILIA.

Veientines and Sabines, and obtained a triumph in consequence. He was interrex in b.c. 462, and consul a second time in 460, with C. Claudius Sa-binus Regillensis. In the latter year Publicola was killed in recovering the Capitol, which had been seized by Herdonius. The history of this event is related under herdonius. (Liv. ii. 52, 53, 15 — 19 ; Dionys. ix. 28, x. 14—17.)

3. P. valerius publicola potitus, consul B. c. 449, is represented by many writers as the son of the preceding, and the grandson of No* 1. The improbability of this account is pointed out under potitus, No. 2, to which family he pro­bably belongs.

4. L. valerius publicola, was consular tri­bune five times, namely, in b. c. 394, 389, 387, 383, 380. (Liv. v. 26, vi. 1, 5, 21, 27.)

5. P. valerius potitus publicola, who was consular tribune six times, belongs to the family of the Potiti. [potitus, No. 5.]

6. M. valerius publicola, magister equitum to the dictator C. Sulpicius Peticus in, b. c. 358, and twice consul, namely, in b. c. 355, with C. Sulpicius Peticus, and in 353, with the same col­league. On the history of the three years above-mentioned see peticus. (Liv. vii. 12, 17—19.)

7. P. valerjus publicola, consul b. c. 352, with C. Marcius Rutilus, and praetor two years afterwards, b. c. 350, in which year he had the command of the army of reserve in the war against the Gauls. In b. c. 344 he was appointed dictator, for the purpose of celebrating games in consequence of the appearance of prodigies. (Liv. vii. 21, 23. 28.)

8. P. valerius publicola, magister equitum to the dictator M. Papirius Crassus, in b. c. 332. (Liv. viii. 17.)

PUBLICOLA, L. VIPSTA'NUS, consul A. d. 48, with A. Vitellius. (Tac. Ann. xi. 23.)

PUBLFLIA, the second wife of M. Tullius Cicero, whom he married in b. c. 46. As Cicero was then sixty years of age, and Publilia quite young, the marriage occasioned great scandal. It appears that Cicero was at the time in great pecu­niary embarrassments ; and after the divorce of Terentia, he was anxious to contract a new mar­riage for the purpose of obtaining money to pay his debts. Publilia had a large fortune, which had been left her by her father, but, in order to evade the Voconia lex, which limited the amount that a woman could receive by will, the property had been left to Cicero in trust for her. The marriage proved an unhappy one, as might have been ex­pected ; and after the death of his daughter Tullia in b. c. 45, Cicero was able to plead his sorrow as an excuse for going into the country alone. While there he writes to Atticus that Publilia had sent him a letter, requesting to be allowed to visit him, and that he had written back to her that he wished to remain alone ; but he begged Atticus to let him know how long he might remain without being surprised by a visit from her. At length Cicero became so tired of his young wife, and so annoyed by her mother and brother, that he was glad to divorce her in the course of the year 45. It was said by some that she had expressed joy at the death of Tullia ; this may have served Cicero as an excuse for his conduct. Cicero had now to repay the dowry, and consequently had incurred all the reproach and inconvenience of such a marriage without reaping from it any advantage. He found

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