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Criminalrecht der Romer, p. 407.) [Comp. licinia, No. 1.]
PUBLICIA GENS, plebeian. The ancient form of the name was Publicius^ which we find on coins and in the Fasti Capitolini. This gens rose into importance in the time between the first and second Punic wars, and the first member of it who obtained the consulship was M. Publicius Malleolus, in B. c. 232. During the republic it was divided into two families, that of malleolus, which was the most important, and that of bibul us, which has been accidentally omitted under that head, and is therefore given below. Besides these names, there are a few cognomens of freedmen and of persons in the imperial period, which are likewise given below. The cognomen Malleolus is the only one that appears on coins of this gens, and there are also other coins which bear no surname. Of the latter we subjoin a specimen. The obverse represents a female head covered with a helmet, the reverse Hercules strangling a lion, with the legend c. poblici c. p. It is not known who this C. Poblicius was. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 279.)
COIN OF PUBLICIA GENS.
PUBLFCIUS. 1. publicius, an Italian seer, is mentioned twice by Cicero along with the Marcii. (Cic. de Div. i. 50, ii. 55.) [See Vol. II. p. 944, b.J
2. L. publicius bibulus, tribunus militum of the second legion, b. c. 216. (Liv. xxii. 53.)
3. C. publicius bibulus, tribune of the plebs b. c. 209, distinguished himself by his hostility to M. Claudius Marcellus, whom he endeavoured to deprive of his imperium ; but Marcellus made such a triumphant reply to the accusations of Publicius, that not only was the bill for taking away his imperium rejected, but he was elected consul on the next day. (Liv. xxvii. 20, 21.)^
6. publicius, a Roman eques, celebrated for conducting bribery at the elections at Rome, about B. c. 70. (Pseudo-Ascon. in Verr. p. 135.)
8. publicius, one of CatilineVcrew, b.c. 63.
(Cic. in Cat. ii. 2.)
9. publicj us, a tribune of the plebs, of uncertain date, brought forward a law that presents of wax-candies (cerei) at the Saturnalia should be made to the patrons only by those clients who were in good circumstances, as the making of these presents had become a very burdensome obligation to many clients. (Mucrob. Sat. i. 7.)
PUBLFCIU3 CELSUS. [celsus.] PUBLFCIUS CERTUS, was the accuser of the younger Helvidius, who was slain by Domitian. As a reward for this service he was nominated praefectus aerarii and was promised the consulship ; but after the death of the tyrant, he was accused by the younger Pliny in the senate, a. d. 96, of the part he had taken in the condemnation of Helvidius. The emperor Nerva did not allow the senate to proceed to the trial of Publicius ; but Pliny obtained the object he had in view, for Publicius was deprived of his office of praefectus aerarii, and thus lost all hope of the consulship. The account of his impeachment, which was afterwards published, is related by Pliny in a letter to Qua-dratus (Ep. ix. 13). Publicius died a few days after the proceedings in the senate, and it was supposed by some that his death was hastened by fear. PUBLI'CIUS GE'LLIUS. [gellius.] CN. PUBLFCIUS MENANDER, a freed-man mentioned by Cicero, iii his oration for Balbus (c. 11).
PUBLFCOLA, or POPLFCULA, or POPLF-COLA, a Roman cognomen, signified " one who courts the people" (from populus and colo\ arid thus " a friend of the people." The form Popli-cula or Poplicola was the most ancient. Poplicoki generall}7" occurs in inscriptions, but we also find Poplicula (Orelli, Inscr. No. 547). Publicola was the more modern form, and seems to have been the one usually employed by the Romans in later times. We find it in the best manuscripts of Livy, and in the palimpsest manuscript of Cicero's De Republica. PUBLFCOLA, GE'LLIUS. 1. L. gellius publicola, was the contubernalis of the consul C. Papirius Carbo, b. c. 120 (Cic. Brut. 27). None of his family had held any of the higher offices of the state before him, and we do not know how he rose into distinction. He must, at all events, have been far advanced in years when he attained the consulship. The year of his praetor-ship is not mentioned ; but after his praetorship he received the province of Achaia, with the title of proconsul; and during his government he offered, in mockery, his mediation to the rival philosophers of Athens, to reconcile their disputes (Cic. de IjC.g. i. 20). In b. c. 74 he defended the cause of M. Octavius Ligur, whose adversary was unjustly favoured by the praetor Verres (Cic. Verr. i. 48). In B. c. 72 Gellius was consul with Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus. The two consuls carried on war against Spartacus. Gellius at first defeated Crixus, one of the principal generals of Spartacus, near mount Garganus in Apulia, and Crixus lost his life in the battle. The two consuls then marched against Spartacus, who was attempting to escape across the Alps into Gaul. But they were no match for the leader of the gladiators. Spartacus attacked each of them separately, in the Apennines, and conquered them in succession. The two consuls then united their forces, but were again defeated in Picenum, by their indefatigable adversary. It was about this time that Pompey had brought the war in Spain to a conclusion ; and as he had conferred the Roman citizenship upon many persons in that country, the consuls brought forward a law to ratify his acts (Cic. pro Ball. 8, 14). The consuls also proposed in the senate, that no one in the provinces should be accused of capital crimes in their absence. This was directed against Verres. (Cie. Verr. ii* 39).