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the death of Antioclms Grypus, and setting up Demetrius Eucaerus, the youngest son of that monarch, as a claimant to the throne. (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 13. § 4.)
After the death of Cleopatra and the expulsion of Alexander in b.c.89 [ptolemaeus IX.], Ptolemy Lathyrus was recalled by the Alexandrians and established anew on the throne of Egypt, which he occupied thenceforth without interruption till his death in b.c. 81 (Justin. xxxix. 5 ; Porphyr. I.e. p. 116). The most important event of this period was the revolt of the once mighty city of Thebes, in Upper Egypt, which was still powerful enough to hold out for nearly three years against the arms of Ptolemy, but at the end of that time was taken and reduced to the state of ruin in which it has ever since remained (Paus. i. 9. § 3). With this exception the eight years of the second reign of Ptolemy Lathyrus appear to have been a period of internal tranquillity, while his prudent policy regained for him in some degree that consideration abroad which Egypt had nearly lost. We find the Athenians, in return for some benefits which he had conferred upon them, erecting statues to him and his daughter Berenice (Paus. I. c.) ; and during the Mithridatic war, b. c. 87, Lucullus was sent by Sulla to request from him the assistance of the Egyptian fleet. But Lathyrus was desirous to remain neuter during that contest, and, while he received Lucullus with every demonstration of honour he declined to furnish the required assistance. (Plut. Lucull. 2, 3.)
The character of Lathyrus appears to have been mild and amiable, even to a degree bordering upon weakness: but it shows in a favourable light when contrasted with those of his mother and brother, and he appears to have been free from the vices which degraded so many of the Egyptian kings. He reigned in all thirty-five years and a half ; ten in conjunction with his mother (b.c. 117—107), eighteen in Cyprus (107—89), and seven and a half as sole ruler of Egypt (Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. p. 116). After his restoration in b. c. 89 he appears to have assumed the additional title of Philadelphia, whence he is sometimes distinguished as ptolemy philadelphia II. (Letronne, Rec. des Tnscr. pp. 64—66 ; Clinton, F. H. vol. iii. p. 393.) He left only one daughter Berenice, called also Cleopatra, who succeeded him on the throne : and two sons, both named Ptolemy, who, though illegitimate, became severally kings of Egypt and Cyprus. [E. H. B.]
COIN OF PTOLEMAEUS VIII., KING OF EGYPT,
PTOLEMAEUS IX. (Ur^a'ios), king of egypt, surnamed alexander, whence he is generally distinguished as alexander I., was the youngest son of Ptolemy VII. by his niece Cleopatra. His mother's partiality led her to desire to place him on the throne in conjunction with her-
on the death of Euergetes, b. c. .117, in preference to his elder brother. But the will of the Alexandrians having compelled her to assume Lathyrus as her colleague, she sent Alexander to Cyprus with the title of general or governor of that island. Three years later, however (b. c. 114), he assumed the title of king, on what pretext we know not, and reckoned the years of his reign from this date (Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. p. 116). But he appears to have remained content with the possession of Cyprus till B. c. 107, when Cleopatra, having expelled Ptolemy Lathyrus, recalled her favourite son to occupy the vacant throne of Egypt. Alexander reigned conjointly with his mother from this time till b. c. 90: but it is probable that her haughty and imperious character left him little real part in the administration of affairs. The only occasion on which we meet with his name in this interval is in b. c. 102, when he commanded the Egyptian fleet which attacked Phoenicia by sea, while Cleopatra with the army marched against Palestine (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 13. § 1). But at length the violence and cruelties of his mother terrified Alexander to such a degree that he determined to free himself from her power, and made his escape secretly from Alexandria. Hereupon Cleopatra, fearing lest her sons should make common cause against her, sent an embassy to Alexander to entreat his return. With this request he was induced to comply ; but soon found reason to suspect that she was forming designs against his life, and immediately determined to anticipate them by causing her to be assassinated, B. c. 90. But he did not long enjoy the fruits of this crime. Cleopatra had been popular with the army, and the soldiers in consequence hated Alexander, who had not reigned alone a year, when he was compelled by a general sedition of the populace and military to quit Alexandria. He however raised fresh troops, and attempted to overcome the insurgent soldiery, but was totally defeated in a sea-fight by the rebels under Tyrrhus, and fled for refuge to Myra in Lycia, b. c. 89. His brother Lathyrus was now recalled by the Alexandrians to Egypt, a circumstance which led Alexander to hope that he might make himself master of Cyprus, and he accordingly assembled some forces, and invaded that island, but was defeated in a naval action by Chaereas, and fell in the battle. (Justin. xxxix. 4, 5 ; Porphyr. ap, Euseb. Ann. p. 116.)
He left two children: a son, Alexander, who afterwards ascended the throne of Egypt, and a daughter, of whom nothing more is known. (Por phyr. 1. c.) [E. H. B.]
COIN OF PTOLEMAEUS IX., KING OF EGYPT.
PTOLEMAEUS X. (nroAe/ioios), king of egypt, son of the preceding, bore his father's name of Alexander, whence he is styled ptolemaeus alexander II. When a mere child, he was sent by his grandmother Cleopatra for safety to the