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560

PTOLEMAEUS.

suaded to take up arms in his cause, but we know nothing of the events of the war. (Justin. xxiv. 2; Trog. Pomp. Prol. xxiv.) It is probable, how­ever, that the Ptolemy who is mentioned as establishing, or asserting, a transient claim to the throne of Macedonia, during the period of anarchy which followed the death of Ptolemy Ceraunus (b. c. 280—277), is no other than the one in ques­tion. (Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. p. 157; Dexippus, ap. Syncell. p. 267.)

9. Son of Pyrrhus, king of Epeirus, by his wife Antigone, the step-daughter of Ptolemy Lagi. When only fifteen years of age he was left by his father in charge of his hereditary dominions, when Pyrrhus himself set out on his expedition to Italy, b.c. 280. (Justin. xviii. 1.) Of his proceedings during his father's absence we know nothing: but immediately after the return of Pyrrhus, B. c. 274, we find Ptolemy actively co-operating with him, reducing Corcyra with a small force: and after the defeat of Antigonus Gonatas, repulsing him in an attempt to recover his lost kingdom, and inflicting on him a second defeat. He afterwards accom­panied Pyrrhus on his expedition to the Pelopon-nese, b. c. 272, and took a prominent part in the attack on Sparta, but in the march from thence towards Argos, Areus having occupied the moun­tain passes, a severe combat ensued, in which Ptolemy, who commanded the advanced guard of his father's army, was slain. Young as he was, he had given the most striking proofs of daring courage and personal prowess, and, had his life been spared, would probably have rivalled the renown of his father. (Justin. xxv. 3,' 4 ; Pint. Pyrrli. 28, 30.)

10. Son of Alexander II. king of Epeirus. [ptolemaeus, king of epeirus.]

11. An illegitimate son of Ptolemy Philadel-phus, king of Egypt, who was appointed by his father to command at Ephesus, when that im­portant city fell into his hands during the war with Antiochus II. Ptolemy was subsequently induced to revolt from his father, in conjunction with Timarchus, tyrant of Miletus, and attempted to establish his own power at Ephesus, but was compelled by a mutiny of his Thracian mer­cenaries to take refuge in the temple of Diana, where he was slain together with his mistress Eirene. (Trog. Pomp. Prol. xxvi. ; Athen. xiii. p. 593, a. ; Niebuhr, KL Schrift. p. 268—271.)

12. Son of Chrysermus, an officer high in the confidence of Ptolemy Philopator. He had been for some time on friendly terms with Cleomenes, whom he visited during his confinement ; but acci­dentally betrayed to the latter the true intentions of the king of Egypt in regard to him, and thus gave rise to his attempted insurrection. On the first breaking out of the tumult Ptolemy, having issued forth from the palace, was instantly attacked and put to death by three of the friends of Cleomenes, b. c. 220. (Plut. Cleom. 36, 37.)

13. Another person of the same name was go­vernor of the city of Alexandria at the time of the outbreak of Cleomenes, and having fallen in with the little band of Spartans, was dragged from his chariot and put to death. (Polyb. v. 39 ; Plut. Cleom. 37.)

14. A Macedonian officer of high rank in the army of Philip V. during the Social War, who ioiued with Leontius and Megaleas in promoting the treasonable designs of Apelles, and was in

PTOLEMAEUS.

consequence put to death by Philip, b.c. 218. (Polyb. v. 25, 26, 29.)

15. Son of Thraseas, a leader of Greek merce­naries in the service of Ptolemy Philopator, who was appointed, together with Andromachus, to command the phalanx in the war against Antiochus, b.c. 217. (Polyb. v. 65.)

16. Son of Aeropus, an officer in the service of Antiochus the Great at the battle of Panium, b. c. 198. (Id. xvi. 18.)

17. Son of Eumenes, an officer in the service of Ptolemy Epiphanes king of Egypt, who was charged with the duty of arresting Scopas, and bringing him to trial. [scopas.] (Polyb. xviii. 36.)

18. Son of Sosibius, the minister of Ptolemy Philopator. He was naturally of a haughty and ambitious character, and these qualities were in­creased by a visit he paid to the Macedonian court during the minority of Ptolemy Epiphanes. Hence, on his return to Egypt, he made common cause with his brother Sosibius, and took a pro­minent part against Tlepolemus who held the chief direction of affairs. Their intrigues were however defeated, and the party of Tlepolemus prevailed. (Polyb. xvi. 22.)

19. Surnamed macron, an Egyptian officer, who was appointed to the government of Cyprus during the minority of Ptolemy Philometor ; an office which he discharged with zeal and ability. By prudent economy in the administration of the island, he amassed a large sum of money which he sent to Philometor, on his attaining his majority, and thus secured the favour of the young king (Polyb. xxvii. 12, and Vales, ad loc.*). What led to the change in his policy we know not, but we subsequently find him betraying his trust, and giving over the island of Cyprus to Antiochus Epiphanes. (2 Mace. x. 12.)

20. A rhetorician of Alexandria, who was em­ployed as ambassador by Ptolemy Euergetes II. to Antiochus Epiphanes when the latter was besieging Alexandria, b. c. 170 (Polyb. xxviii. 16). He is perhaps the same person with the brother of Comanus, whom we find accompanying that minister on his embassy to Rome in b.c. 162. (Id.xxxi. 27.)

21. An Egyptian, surnamed sympetesis, who was appointed by Ptolemy Euergetes II. to govern Gyrene during his absence, when he went to Rome in b. c. 162, to prefer his complaints in person against his brother Philometor. He sub­sequently joined in the revolt of the Cyrenaeans against Euergetes, and appears to have commanded the army with which they defeated him near the Catabathmus. (Polyb. xxxi. 26.)

22. Surnamed Caesarion, a son of C. Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. [caesarion.]

23. Surnamed philadelphus, a son of M. An­tony, the Triumvir, by Cleopatra. He was the youngest of their three children, and could there­fore hardly have been born before b. c. 39. (Dion Cass. xlix. 32.) In b. c. 34, he was proclaimed by his father king of Syria, including*Cilicia, and all the provinces west of the Euphrates (Dion Cass, xlix. 41 ; Pint. Ant. 54). After the death of Antony, and the subjugation of Egypt, b. c. 30, his life was spared by Augustus, at the intercession of Juba and Cleopatra, and he was brought up by Octavia with

* This passage is referred by Schweighauser to Ptolemy son of Agesarchus, to whom it is certainly not applicable.

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