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apparently his brother, he inherited the dominion of Eliserne and Teuthrania, in Asia Minor. He was among the Greeks who accompanied the younger Cyrus in his expedition against his bro­ ther, and is mentioned more than once by Xeno- phon (Anab. ii. 1. § 3, 2. § 1, 7, 8, 10.). He returned safe home ; for at the time of the ex­ pedition of Thimbron into Asia Minor (b. c. 399) he and Eurysthenes were still governing their little principality, and readily attached themselves to the Lacedaemonian commander. (Xen. Hellen. iii. 1. §6.) [C. P.M.]

PROCLES, a distinguished Greek medallist, whose name appears on the coins of Naxos and of Catana. The name was first discovered on an ex­ tremely rare coin of Naxos, where it is engraved on the plinth of a statue of Silenus, which forms the reverse of the coin, in characters so fine as to require a strong lens to decipher them. There re­ mained, however, a possibility of doubt whether the name was that of the engraver of the medal, or that of the maker of the original statue itself. This doubt has been fully set at rest by the dis­ covery of the same name on a splendid medal of Catana, in the collection of the Due de Luynes. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn^ p. 95, with an engraving at the head of M. Raoul-Rochette's Preface.) [P. S.]

PROCLUS (IIpo/cAos), historical. 1. Prefect of the city under Theodosius the Great. He was put to death in the tenth year of his reign. An epigram on the pedestal of an obelisk at Constan­tinople records his success in setting the obelisk upright. (Anthol. Graec. iv. 17.) A Latin trans­lation of the epigram by Hugo Grotius is given by Fabricius (BibL Graec. vol. ix. p. 368).

2. Surnamed 'Oj/etpo/cpiTrjs, according to some authorities (Theophanes, p. 140 ; Cedrenus, p. 298), predicted the death of the emperor Anasta- sius. It appears to be this Proclus of whom Zonaras (Annal. xiv. p. 55) relates that he set on fire the fleet of Vitalianus, who was in arms against Anastasius, by means of mirrors. Other accounts (Chron. Joann. Malalae, vol. ii. p. 126) say that it was by means, not of mirrors, but of sulphur, that he effected this. This story has sometimes been erroneously referred to Proclus Diadochus (Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. ix. p. 370). [C. P. M.] ,

PROCLUS (npoK\os), literary. 1. euty/chius proclus, a grammarian who flourished in the 2nd century, born at Sicca in Africa. He was the in­structor of M. Antoninus (Jul. Capit. Vit. Ant. c. 2.). It is probably this Proclus who is men­tioned by Trebellius Pollio (AemiL Tyr.) as the most learned grammarian of his age. He was created consul by Antoninus (Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. ix. p. 365).

2. Or proculeius, son of Themison, held the office of hierophant at Laodiceia in Syria. He wrote, according to Suidas, the following works :—1. &so-\oyta. 2. Els r^v Trap5 'H(Tio§<w rijs HavSwpas iwQov. 3. Els Tct, xpu<ra eTrrj. 4. Ets r-f)v Ni/co,ua%ou elffayoay^if rijs apiflfWjTt/crjs, and some geometrical treatises.

3. Surnamed MaAAwr^s, a Stoic philosopher, a native of Cilicia. He was, according to Suidas (s. ?'.), the author of VTr6/j,vr)/j.a twv Aioysvovs ffo-<jt>i(T/uaTwj', and a treatise against the Epicureans. It is probably this Proclus who is mentioned by Proclus Diadochus (in Tim. p. 166).

4. Or proculus, a follower of Montanus, from


whom a sect of heretics were called Procliani, who were deemed bad enough to require rebaptizing if they returned to the church (Fabric. BibL Graec. ix. p. 366.).

5. A native of Naucratis in Egypt. He was a man of distinction in his native city, but in conse­quence of the civil commotions there removed, while still young, to Athens. There he placed himself under the instructions of Adrianus, and afterwards himself taught eloquence, and had Philostratus as one of his pupils. He possessed several houses in and near Athens, and imported considerable quan­tities of merchandise from Egypt, which he dis­posed of wholesale to the ordinary vendors. After the death of his wife and son he took a concubine, to whom he entirely surrendered the control of his household, and in consequence of her mis­management, reaped considerable discredit. It was his practice, if any one paid down 100 drachmae at once, to allow him admission to all his lectures. He also had a library, of which he allowed his pupils to make use. In the style of his discourses he imitated Hippias and Gorgias. He was re­markable for the tenacity of his memory, which he retained even in extreme old age. (Philostr. Vit. Procli, p. 602, &c. ed. Olearius.)

6. Surnamed AtaSo^os (the successor), from his being regarded as the genuine successor of Plato in doctrine, was one of the most celebrated teach­ers of the Neoplatonic school. (Marin. c. 10. In some MSS. he is styled 8ta5oxos HXaroiviKos.) He was of Lycian origin, the son of Patricius and Marcella, who belonged to the city of Xanthus, which Proclus himself regarded as his native place. According, however, to the distinct state­ment of Marinus (Vit. Prodi, c. 6) he was born at Byzantium, on the 8th of February, a. d. 412, as is clear from the data furnished by his horo­scope, which Marinus has preserved. The earlier period of his life was spent at Xanthus. When still very young, he was distinguished by his re­markable eagerness for study, to which Marinus believes him to have been urged by Athena her­self, who appeared to him in a vision. Such watchful care, indeed, did the gods, according to that writer, take of Proclus, that he was preter-naturally cured of a dangerous malady in his youth by Apollo, who appeared in his own person for the purpose. Statements like this indicate how large an abatement must be made in the ex­travagant account which Marinus gives of the precocity and progress of Proclus. From Xanthus he removed, while still young, to Alexandria, where his studies were conducted chiefly under the guidance of the rhetorician Leonas, who re­ceived him into his family, and treated him as though he had been his own son. Through him Proclus was introduced to the leading men and the most distinguished scholars of Alexandria, whose friendship he speedily secured by his abili­ties, character, and manners. He studied grammar under Orion. [orion.] He also applied himself to learn the Latin language, purposing, after the example of his father, to devote himself to the study of jurisprudence. Leonas having occasion to make a journey to Byzantium, took young Proclus with him, who eagerly embraced the op­portunity of continuing his studies. On his return to Alexandria, Proclus abandoned rhetoric and law for the study of philosophy, in which his in­structor was Olympiodorus. He also learnt ma-

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