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POLYCARPUS.

Clementina [clemens, romanus], 4to. 15-46 ; at Cologne, with the Latin version of the writings of the pseudo-Dionysius, 1557 ; and with the Clementina and the Latin version of the Epistolae of Ignatius, fol. a. d. 1569. It appeared also in the following collections: the Micropresbyticon, Basel, 1550 ; the Orthodoivographa of Heroklus, Basel, 1555 ; in the Orihodooeographa of Grynacus, Basel, 1569; in the Mella Patrum of Francis Rons, 8vo. London, 1650 ; and in the various editions of the Bibliotheca Patrum, from its first publication by De la Bigne, a. d. 1575. The Greek text was first published by Halloix, sub­joined to the life of Polycarp, in his Illustrium Ecclesiae Orientalis Scriptorum Vitae et Documenta, vol. i. fol. Douai, 1633 ; and was again published by Usher, with the Epistolae of Ignatius, 4to. Ox­ford, 1644, not in the Appendix Tgnatiana (which came out in 1647) as incorrectly stated by Fabri-cius ; by Maderus, 4to. Helmstadt, 1653 ; and in the Patres Apostolici of Cotelerius, 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1672 ; and Amsterdam, 1724 ; of Ittigius, 8vo. Leipzig, 1699 ; of Frey, Basel, 1742, and of Russel, 2 vols. 8vo. 1746. It is contained also in the editions of Ignatius, by AldrSch, 8vo. Oxon. 1708, and Smith, 4to. Oxon. 1709. It is contained also in the Varia Sacra of Le Moyne, vol. i. 4to. Leyden, 1685 ; and in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. i. fol. Venice, 1765. Of more recent editions may be mentioned those of Hornemann, Scripta Genuina Graeca Pa­trum Apostolicorum, 4to. Copenhagen, 1828 ; Routh, Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Opuscula Prae-cipua quaedam, vol. i. 8vo. Oxford, 183*2 ; Jacob-son, Patrum Apostolicorum quae supersunt, vol. ii. 8vo. Oxford, 1838 ; and Hafele, Patrum Apostoli-corum Opera, 8vo. Tubingen, 1839. There are English versions of this Epistle by Wake and Clementson [ignatius, No. 1J, and one in Cave's Apostolici, or Lives of the Primitive Fathers.

That Polycarp wrote other Epistolae is attested by Irenaeus (Epistol. ad Florin.): one TIpos 'AOrj-vaiovs. Ad Athenienses, is quoted by St. Maximus in his Prologus ad Libros Dionysii Areopagitae [maximus confessor], and by Joannes Maxen-tius [maxentius, joannes], but is supposed to be spurious ; at any rate it is now lost: another, Ifyos Aiovifffiov tqv 'ApeoTrc^iTTjf, Ad Dionysium Areo-pagitam, mentioned by Suidas (s. v. IIoAu/capTros), is supposed to be spurious also. The life of Polycarp, ascribed to Pionius, states that he wrote various Tractatus, Homiliae, and Epistolae, and especially a book De Obitu S. Joannis; of which, according to Halloix (7. c.), some extracts from a MS. said to be extant in an abbey in Northern Italy, had been given in a Concio de S. Joanne Evangelista by Franciscus Humblot; but even Halloix evidently doubted their genuineness. Some fragments ascribed to Polycarp, cited, in a Latin version, in a Catena in Quatuor Evangelistas by Victor of Capua, were published by Franciscus Feuardentius subjoined to Lib. iii. c. 3, of hisAnnotationesadlrenaeum, and were subse­quently reprinted by Halloix (/.c.), Usher (Appendix Ignatiana, p. 31, &c.), Maderus (/. c.), Cotelerius (/. c.), Ittigius (/. c.), and Galland (1. c.j, under the title of Fragmenta Quinque e Responsionum Capitu-lis S. Polycarpo adscriptis : but their genuineness is very doubtful. (Cave, Hist.Lift, ad ann. 108, vol. i. p. 44, &c. fol. Oxon. 1740 ; Ittigius, De Biblioth. Patrum, passim; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 47, &c.; Ceillier, Auteurs Sacres9l.c.; Lardner,

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POLYCHARMUS.

Credibility, pt. ii. b. i. c. 6, &c. ; Gallandius, Biblio-tlieca Patrum, proleg. ad vol. i. c. ix.; Jacobson, Lc. proleg. pp. 1. &c. Ixx.)

The tt?s 'ZfAvpvaiwv eKKA7]<nas irepl /uLaprvpfov rov dyiov Uo\vKdpirov eTnoroA?) cjkvk^ikos is almost entirely incorporated in the Historia Eccle- siastica of Eusebius (iv. 15) ; it is also extant in its original form, in which it was first published by Archbishop Usher, in his Appendix Ignatiana, 4 to. London, 1647 ; and was reprinted in the Acta Martyrum Sincera et Selecta of Ruinart, 4to. Paris, 1689, and in the Patres Apostolici of Cotelerius, vol. ii. fol. Paris, 1672, Antwerp (or rather Amster­ dam), 1698, and Amsterdam, 1724 ; it was also reprinted by Maderus, in his edition of the Epistola Polycarpi, already mentioned ; by Ittigius, in his Bibliotheca Patrum Apostolicorum, 8vo. Leipzig, 1699 ; by Smith, in his edition of the Epistolae of Ignatius (reprinted at Basel, by Frey, 8vo. 1742) ; by Russel, in his Patres Apostolici, vol. ij. 8vo. London, 1746 ; by Gallandius, in his Biblio­ theca Patrum, vol. i. fol. Venice, 1765 ; and by Jacobson, in his Patrum Apostolicorum quae super- sunt, vol. ii. 8vo. Oxford, 1838. There is an ancient Latin version, which is given with the Greek text by Usher ; and there are modern Latin versions given by other editors of the Greek text, or in the Acta Sanctorum Januarii (ad d. xxvi.) vol. ii. p. 702, &c. There are English versions by Archbishop Wake, 8vo. London, 1693 (often re­ printed) ; and lately revised by Chevallier, 8vo. Cambridge, 1833 ; and by Dalrymple, in his Re­ mains of Christian Antiquity, 8vo. Edinburgh, 1776. (Cave, I.e. p. 65 ; Fabric. /.c. p. 51 ; Lardner, I.e. c. 7 ; Ceillier, 1. c. p. 695 ; Ittigius, Galland, and Jacoljson, II. cc.) [J. C. M. |

POLYCASTE (noAu/cao-rr?). 1. A daughter of Nestor and Anaxibia (Horn. Od. iii. 464 ; Apollod. i. 9. § 9), became by Telemachus the mother of Perseptolis. (Eustath. ad Horn. I. c.)

2. A daughter of Lygaeus, was married to Icarius, by whom she became the mother of Penelope. (Strab. x. p. 461.) [L. S.]

POLYCHARES (HoAuxaprjs), a Messenian, and the conqueror in the 4th Olympiad (B. c. 761), is celebrated as the immediate cause of the first Messenian war, b. c. 743. Having been wronged by the Lacedaemonian Euaephnus, he took revenge by aggressions upon other Lacedae­monians ; and as the Messenians would not deliver him up to the Spartans, war was eventually de­clared by the latter against Messenia. (Pans. iv. 4. § 5, &c.)

POLYCHARMUS (noAu'xw0*)* wrote a work upon Lycia (Au/aaKa), which is referred to by Athenaeus (viii. p. 333, d.), and Stephanus Byzantinus (s. vv. 'IAap/?, 2oCpa, <£eAAos-). It is doubtful whether he is the same as the Polychar-mus of Naucratis, who wrote a work on Aphrodite (Uep\ 'A<ppo$iT7]s), from which Athenaeus makes an extract (pp. 675, f,—676, c.).

POLYCHARMUS (Ho\txawos), a sculptor, two of whose works stood in Pliny's time in the portico of Octavia at Rome (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5. s, 4. § 10). One of these works was Venus washing herself; but what the other was is doubtful, on account of the corrupt state of the passage in Pliny. As it stands in the common editions, it is, Vene-rem lavantem sese, Daedalum stantem Polycliarmus* which is the reading of the inferior MSS., and seems to be only a conjectural emendation of the

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