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between Augustus and Hadrian. (GescJiichtc der Griecli. Bezedt. p. 188.) [W. M. G.]
PLUTON (nAoimoj/), the giver of wealth, at first a surname of Hades, the god of the lower world, and afterwards also used as the real name of the god. In the latter sense it first occurs in Euripides. (Here. Fur. 1104 ; comp. Lucian, Tim. 21.) [L.S.]
PLUTUS (IIAoyros), sometimes also called Pluton (Aristoph. Plut. 727), the personification of wealth, is described as a son of lasion and Demeter (Hes. Theog. 969, &c. ; Horn. Hymn, in Cer. 491, Od. v. 125). Zeus is said to have blinded him, in order that he might not bestow his favours on righteous men exclusively, but that he might dis tribute his gifts blindly and without any regard to merit (Aristoph. Plut. 90 ; Schol. ad Theocrit. x. 19). At Thebes there was a statue of Tyche, at Athens one of Eirene, and at Thespiae one of Athena Ergane ; and in each of these cases Plutus was represented as the child of those divinities, sym bolically expressing the sources of wealth (Paus. ix. 16. § ], 26. § 5). Hyginus (Poet. Astr. ii. 4) calls him the brother of Philomelus. He seems to have commonly been represented as a boy with a Cornucopia. (Hirt, MytJiol. Bilderb. ii. p. 105, &c.) " ^ [L.S.]
PLUVIUS, i. e. the sender of rain, a surname of Jupiter among the Romans, to whom sacrifices were offered during long protracted droughts. These sacrifices were called aquilicium, " the calling forth of water," because certain magic ceremonies were performed by Etruscans to call down rain from heaven. (Tibull. i. 8. 26 ; Tertull. Apolog. 40 ; Fest. p. 2, ed. Miiller.) [L. S.]
PNYTAGORAS (IL/urc^o'pas).* 1. The eldest son of Evagoras, king of Salamis in Cyprus, who served under his father during the war carried on by the latter against the king of Persia [evagoras], and contributed essentially to his successes. Isocrates speaks of him in terms of praise not inferior to those which he bestows upon the father. (Isocrat. Evag. p. 201 j Diod. xv. 4.) The circumstances of the conspiracy which led to the assassination of Evagoras are not very clearly known to us : but it is certain that Pnytagoras also was involved in his fate, and perished together with his father by the machinations of the eunuch Thrasydaeus. (Theopomp. ap. Phot. p. 120, a. b. ed. Bekk., Fragm. Ill, ed. Didot.)
* There is much confusion in regard to this name. Our MSS. of Diodorus and Isocrates give in some cases Pythagoras, in others Protagoras. But Theopompus, Arrian, Athenaeus, and Q. Curtius, concur in the true form Pnytagoras, which has been judiciously restored by the later editors both of Diodorus and Isocrates. Borrell (Sur les Mtdailles des Rois de Chypre, p. 48) endeavours to defend the reading Pythagoras on the authority of coins, but their evidence is inconclusive.
2. King of Salamis in Cyprus, in which position he probably succeeded Nicocles, though we have no account of his accession, or his relation to the previous monarchs. But we find him in pos session of the city in b.c. 351, when he was besieged there by the younger Evagoras, at the head of an armament destined to reduce Cyprus for the Persian king. Pnytagoras, however, while he held out successfully against the invaders, sent an embassy with offers of submission to the king of Persia, and thus obtained the confirmation of his power. (Diod. xvi. 46.) From this time he appears to have retained the virtual sovereignty unmolested until the conquest of Phoenicia by Alexander (i*. c. 332), when he submitted, to gether with the other petty princes of Cyprus, to the Macedonian monarch. He commanded, in person, the fleet with which he assisted the con queror in the siege of Tyre, and rendered im portant services. In one of the naval actions before that city his own quinquereme was sunk, but he himself escaped, and was rewarded by Alexander after the siege with rich presents, and an extension of territory. (Arr. Anab. ii. 20, 22 ; Curt. iv. 3. § 11 ; Duris, ap. Athen. iv. p. 167, c.) His son Nithadon accompanied Alexander through out his campaigns, and was appointed to the com mand of a trireme in the descent of the Indus. (Arr. Ind. 18.) Borrell, in his JEssai sur les Me- dailles des Rois de CJiypre (p. 48—50), has con founded this Pnytagoras with the preceding : and the same error has inadvertently been committed in the article evagoras, No. 2. Vol. II. p. 55, a. [E. H. B.]
POBLFCIA GENS. [publicia gens.]
POBLILIA GENS. [publilia gens.]
PODALEIRIUS (IIo5aAet>os), a son of Asclepius and Epione or Arsinoe, and a brother of Machaon, along with whom he led the Thessalians of Tricca against Troy (Horn. //. ii. 729, &c.; Apollod. iii. J 0. § 8 ; Paus. iv. 31. § 9). He was, like his brother, skilled in the medical art (Horn. //. xi. 832, &c.). On his return from Troy lie was cast by a storm on the coast of Syros in Caria, where he is said to have settled (Paus. ii. 26. § 7, iii. 26. § 7). He was worshipped as a hero on mount Dria. (Strab. vi. p. 284.)
Another mythical personage of this name occurs in Virgil. (Aen. xii. 304.) [L. S.]
PODARCES (UoSdpKris)* 1. Is said to have been the original name of Priam. (Apollod. ii. 6. § 4 ; comp. priam us.)
2. A son of Iphiclus and grandson of Phylacus, was a younger brother of Protesilaus, and led the Thessalians of Phylace against Troy. (Horn. II. ii. 695 ; Apollod. i. 9. § 12 ; Hygin. Fab. 97 ; Strab. ix. p. 432 ; Schol. ad Horn. Od. xi. 289.) [L. S.]
POEAS (Ilofas), a son of Phylacus or Thauma-cus, and husband of Methone, by whom he became the father of Philoctetes (Horn. Od. iii. 190 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 323). He is mentioned among the Argonauts (Apollod. i. 9. § 16 ; comp. Pind. Pytli. i. 53), and is said to have killed with an arrow, Talaus, in Crete (Apollod. i. 9. § 26). At the request of Heracles, Poeas kindled the pile on which the hero burnt himself, and was rewarded with the arrows of Heracles. (Apollod. ii. 7- § 7 j comp. heracles and philoctetes.) [L. S.]