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PLATONIUS-

commenced 'in 1827 an elaborate edition of Plato, which is not yet quite completed. This is perhaps the best and most useful edition which has appeared. The edition of J. G. Baiter, J. C. Orelli, and A. G. Winckelmann (one vol. 4to. Zurich, 1839) de­serves especial mention for the accuracy of the text and the beauty of the typography.

Of separate dialogues, or collections of dialogues, the editions are almost endless. Those of the Cratylus and Theaetetus, of the Euthyphro, Apo­logia, Crito, and Phaedo, of the Sophista, Politicus and Parmenides, and of the Philebus and Sympo­sium by Fischer ; of the Lysis, Charmides, Hip-pias Major, and Phaedrus, of the Gorgias and Theaetetus, of the Cratylus, Euthydemus and Par­menides, of the Phaedo, and of the Protagoras and Sophistes by Heindorf (whose notes exhibit both acuteness and sound judgment) ; of the Phaedo by Wyttenbach ; of the Philebus, and of the Par­menides by Stallbaum (in the edition of the latter of which the commentary of Proclus is incor­porated), are most worthy of note. Of the trans­lations of Plato the most celebrated is the Latin version of Marsilius Ficinus (Flor. 1483 — 1484, and frequently reprinted). It was in this version, which was made from manuscripts, that the writings of Plato first appeared in a printed form. The translation is so extremely close that it has almost the authority of a Greek manuscript, and is of great service in ascertaining varieties of reading. This remark, however, does not apply to the later, altered editions of it, which were published subse­quently to the appearance of the Greek text of Plato. There is no good English translation of the whole of Plato, that by Taylor being by no means accurate. The efforts of Floyer Sydenham were much more successful, but he-translated only a few of the pieces. There is a French translation by V. Cousin. Schleiermacher's German translation is incomparably the best, but is unfortunately incom­plete. There is an Italian translation by Dardi Bembo. The versions of separate dialogues in dif­ferent languages are too numerous to -be noticed.

We have space to notice only the following out of the very numerous works written in illustration of Plato : — -Platonis Dialogorum Argumenta Eocposita et Illustrata,) by Tiedemann (Bip. 1786); System der Platonischen Philosophic, by Tennemann (4 vols. 8vo. Leipz. 1792 — 5) ; Initia Philosophic^ Pla- tonicae, by P. G. Van Heusde (ed. ii. Lugd. Bat. 1842) ; Platons Leben und Schriften, by G. A. F. Ast (Leipz. 1816) ; Geschichte und System der Platonischen Philosophie, by C. F. Hermann (Hei- delb. 1838) ; Platonis de Ideis. et Numeris Doctrina ex Aristotele illustrata, by F. A. Trendelenburg (Lips. 1826); Platotiische Studien, by E. Zeller (Tubing. 1839). There are also numerous smaller treatises by Bockh, C. F. Hermann, Stallbaum, &c., which may be consulted with profit. Schleierma- cher's introductions to some of the dialogues have been translated and published in a separate form in English. [C. P. M.]

PLATONIUS (TI\aT(6vios\ a grammarian, of whom all that we know is that a treatise bearing his name is generally prefixed to the editions of Aristophanes. It is entitled Ilept 8ta<J>opas The subject is the difference between

volumes containing the various readings, and por­tions of the commentary of Proclus on the Cratylus, edited by Boissonade.

PLAUTIANUS.

the characteristics of the old, the middle, and the new comedy, especially the two first, and the causes of the various points of difference. The remarks are brief, but judicious. ., [W. M. G.]

PLATOR. 1. The commander of Oreum for Philip, betrayed the town to the Romans, b. c. 207 (Liv. xxviii. 6). He is probably the same Plator whom Philip sent with some Illyrians, about the commencement of the Second Punic war, to the assistance of the Cretans. (Polyb. iv. 55.)

2. The brother of Gentius, the Illyrian king, who is called Plator by Livy (xliv. 30), but Pleu-ratus by Polybius. [pleuratus.]

3. Of Dyrrhacium, was slain by Piso, proconsul in Macedonia, b.c. 57, although he had been hos­pitably received in the house of Plator. (Cic. in Pison. 34, comp. de Harus. Resp. 16.)

PLATORINUS, a cognomen of the Sulpicia gens, which occurs only upon coins, one of which is annexed. The obverse represents the head of Augustus with the legend caesar avgvstvs, the reverse the head of M. Agrippa, with the legend

PLATORINVS JIIVIR. M. AGRIPPA (Eckhel, Vol. V.

p. 317.)

COIN OF PLATORINUS,

PLA.UTIA GENS, plebeian. The name is also written Plotius, just as we have both Clodius and Claudius. The first person of this gens who obtained the consulship was C. Plautius Proculus in b. c. 358 ; and from that time down to the im­perial period many of the Plautii held at different intervals the highest offices in the state. Under the republic we find the cognomens of decianus, hypsaeus, proculus, silvanus, venno, ve-nox : and to these there were still further additions in the time of the empire, a list of which is given below. A few of the Plautii occur without any surname ; and of them an account is also given below. Those persons whose names are usually written Plotius are spoken of under this form. The only cognomens occurring on coins are Hyp-saeus and Plancus; and the latter surname does not properly belong to the Plotii, but was retained by Munatius Plancus after he had been adopted by L. Plautius. [plancus, No. 5.]

PLAUTIA URGULANILLA, the first wife of the emperor Claudius, who divorced her on ac­count of her lewd conduct, and of her being sus­pected of murder. She bore two children during her marriage, Drusus, who died at Pompeii in a. d. 20 [drusus, No. 23], and Claudia, whom she had by a freedman of Claudius, and who was therefore exposed by command of the emperor. (Suet. Claud. 26, 27.)

PLAUTIANUS, L. (or C.) FU'LVIUS, an African by birth, the fellow-townsman and pro­bably a connection of Septimius Severus. He served as praefect of the praetorium under this emperor, who loaded him with honours and wealth, deferred to his opinion upon all important

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