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384

PLANCUS.

legend m. anton. imp. avg. iiivir. r. p. c. (i. e. M. Antonius Imperator Auyur Triumvir Reipublicae Qonstituendae) ; and it bears on the reverse a guttus between a thunderbolt, and a caduceus, with the legend l. plancvs imp. iter. In the draw­ing above the position of the obverse and the re­verse has been accidentally transposed by the artist. 3. T. munatius plancus burs a, brother of No. 2, was tribune of the plebs b. c. 52, when in connection with his colleagues C. Sallustius and Q. Pompeius Rufus, he supported the views of Pompeius Magnus. The latter had set his heart upon the dictatorship, and, in order to obtain this honour, he was anxious that the state of anarchy and confusion in which Rome was plunged, should be continued, since all parties would thus be ready to submit to his supremacy as the only way of restoring peace and order. Plancus therefore did every thing in his power to increase the anarchy: on the death of Clodius, he roused the passions of the mob by exposing to public view the corpse of their favourite, and he was thus the chief pro­moter of the riot which ensued at the funeral, and in which the Curia Hostilia was burnt to the ground. His attacks upon Milo were most vehement, and he dragged him before the popular assembly to give an account of his murder of Clodius. By means of these riots Pompey at­tained, to a great extent, his end; for although he failed in being appointed dictator, he was made consul without a colleague. The law De Vi9 which he proposed in his consulship, and which was intended to deliver him from Milo and his other enemies, was strongly supported by Plancus and Sallustius, who also attempted by threats to deter Cicero from defending Milo. But when Pompey had attained his object, he willingly sacrificed his instruments. At the close of the year, as soon as his tribunate had expired, Plancus was accused of the part he had taken in burning the Curia Hostilia, under the very law De Vi, in the enactment of which he had taken so active a part. The accusation was conducted by Cicero, and as Plancus received only luke­warm support from Pompey, he was condemned. Cicero was delighted with his victory, and wrote to his friend M. Marius (ad Fam. vii. 2) in extravagant spirits, stating that the condemnation of Plancus had given him greater pleasure than the death of Clodius. It would appear from this letter that Cicero had on some previous occasion defended Plancus. After his condemnation Plancus repaired to Ravenna in Cisalpine Gaul, where he was kindly received by Caesar. Soon after the beginning of the civil war he was re­stored to his civic rights by Caesar; and from that time he continued to reside at Rome, taking no part apparently in the civil war ; and the only thing by which he showed his gratitude to the dictator, was by fighting as a gladiator, together with several other citizens, on the occasion of Caesar's triumph after his return from Spain, b. c. 45. After Caesar's death Plancus fought on Antony's side in the campaign of Mutina, but he was unsuccessful ; he was driven out of Pollentia by Pontius Aquila, the legate of D. Brutus, and in his flight broke his leg. (Dion Cass. xL 49, 55, xlvi. 38 ; Plut. Pomp. 55, Cat. 48 ; Ascon. in Cic. Mil. p. 32, &c., ed. Orelli ; Cic. ad Att. vi. 1. § 10, ad Fam. xii. 18, Phil. vi. 4, x. 10, xi. 6, xii. 8, xiii. 12.)

PLANCUS.

4. cn. munatius plancus, brother of the two preceding, praetor elect b. c. 44, was charged by Caesar in that year with the assignment to his soldiers of lands at Buthrotum in Epeirus. As Atticus possessed property in the neighbourhood, Cicero commended to Plancus with much earnest­ness the interests of his friend. In the following year, b. c. 43, Plancus was praetor, and was allowed by the senate to join his brother Lucius in Transalpine Gaul, where he negotiated on his brother's behalf with Lepidus, and distinguished himself by his activity in the command of the cavalry of his brother's army. His exertions brought on a fever: for this reason, and also because the two consuls had perished, he was sent back to Rome by Lucius. (Cic. ad Att. xvi. 16, ad Fam. x. 6, 11, 15, 17,21.)

5. L. plautius plancus, brother of the three preceding, was adopted by a L. Plautius, and therefore took his praenomen as well as nomen, but retained his original cognomen, as was the case with Metellus Scipio [metellus, No. 22], and PupiusPiso. [Piso, No. 18.] Before his adoption his praenomen was Caius, and hence he is called by Valerius Maximus C. Plautius Plancus. He was included in the proscription of the triumvirs, b. c. 43, with the consent of his brother Lucius [No. 2]. He concealed himself in the neighbour­hood of Salernum ; but the perfumes which he used and his refined mode of living betrayed his lurking-place to his pursuers, and to save his slaves, who were being tortured to death because they would not betray him, he voluntarily surrendered himself to his executioners. (Plin. //. N. xiii. 3. s. 5 ; Val. Max. vi. 8. § 5 ; Appian, B. C. iv. 12 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 67.) The following coin, which bears the legends l. plavtivs plancvs, must

COIN OP L PLAUTIUS PLANCUS.

have been struck by this Plancus, as no other Plautius is mentioned with this cognomen. This coin, representing on the obverse a mask, and on the reverse Aurora leading four horses, refers to a circumstance which happened in the censorship of C. Plautius Venox, who filled this office with Ap. Claudius Caecus in b. c. 312. It is related that the tibicines having quarrelled with the censor Ap. Claudius left Rome and went to Tibur; but as the people felt the loss of them, the other censor, Plautius, had them placed in waggons one night when they were drunk, and conveyed to Rome, where they arrived early next morning ; and, that they might not be recognised, by the magistrates, he caused their faces to be covered with masks. The tale is related at length by Ovid (Fast. vi. 651), and the following lines in particular throw light upon the subject of the coin : —

" Jamque per Esquilias Romanam intraverat

urbem, Et mane in medio plaustra fuere foro.

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