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PITHON.

Indian provinces, apparently those bordering on the satrapy of Philip. (Id. ib. 15.) Almost imme­diately after this we find him detached with a con­siderable army to reduce the Indian king Musica-nus, a service which he successfully performed, and brought the chief himself prisoner to Alexander. He again bore an important part in the descent of the Indus, during which he held the separate com­mand of a body of cavalry that marched along the right bank of the river, and rejoined the main army at Pattala. (Arr. Anab. vi. 17, 20; Curt. ix. 8.

§ 16.)

From this time we hear no more of him during the life of Alexander: he doubtless remained in his satrapy, the government of which was confirmed to him both in the first partition of the provinces im­mediately on the king's death, and in the subse­quent arrangements at Triparadeisus, b. c. 321. (Diod. xviii. 3, 39 : Dexippus ap. Phot. p. 64, b. ; Arrian. ibid. p. 71, b ; Curt. x. 10. § 4 ; Justin. xiii. 4.) It is remarkable that we do not find him taking any part in the war between Eumenes and Antigonus, and it seems probable that he had at that period been dispossessed of his government by Eudemus, who had established his power over great part of the Indian satrapies. But it is clear that he was unfavourably disposed towards Eume­nes, and after the fall of that general, b. c. 316, Pithon was rewarded by Antigonus with the im­portant satrapy of Babylon. From thence how­ever he was recalled in b. c. 314, in order to form one of the council of experienced officers who were selected by Antigonus to assist and control his son Demetrius, to whom he had for the first time entrusted the command of an army. Two years later we again find him filling a similar situation aud united with the youthful Demetrius in the command of the army in Syria. But he in vain opposed the impetuosity of the young prince, who gave battle to Ptolemy at Gaza, notwithstanding all the remonstrances of Pithon and the other old generals. A complete defeat was the consequence, and Pithon himself fell on the field of battle, b. c. 312. (Diod. xix. 56, 69, 82, 85.)

2. Son of Crateuas or Crateas, a Macedonian of Eordaea, in the service of Alexander, whom we find holding the important post of one of the seven select officers called Somatophylaces, the imme­diate guards of the king's person. (Arr. Anab. vi. 28.) But we have no information as to the time when he obtained, or the services by which he earned, this distinguished position, though, as al­ready mentioned, it is not always possible to say whether he or the son of Agenor is the person spoken of during the campaigns of Alexander. He is mentioned among the officers in close attendance upon the king during his last illness (Id. vii. 26 ; Plut. Alex. 76), and took a considerable part in the events that followed his decease, b. c. 323. According to Curtius, he was the first to propose in the assembly of the officers that Perdiccas and Leonnatus should be appointed regents and guard­ians of the infant king, the expected child of Roxana: and in the disputes between the cavalry and infantry he assumed a prominent place among the leaders of the former. (Curt. x. 7. §§ 4, 8 ; Arrian. ap. Phot. p. 69, a.) His services on this occasion were not forgotten by Perdiccas, who in the division of the provinces assigned to Pithon the important satrapy of Media. (Curt. x. 10. § 4 ; Diod. xviii. 3 ; Arrian. ap. Phot. p. 69, a ; Dexip-

PITHON.

pus, Hid. p. 64, a.) Shortly afterwards he was en­trusted by the regent with the charge of the Mace­donian troops destined to reduce the revolted Greek mercenaries in the upper satrapies: a ser­vice which he accomplished with complete success, and having defeated the insurgents in a decisive battle, granted a free pardon and promise of safety to the survivors. This act of clemency we are told was secretly designed to attach these troops to himself; but Perdiccas, who suspected his ambi­tious projects, had given private orders to the con­trary, and the unhappy Greeks had no sooner laid down their arms than they were all massacred by the Macedonians. (Diod. xviii. 4, 7 ; Trog. Pomp. Prol. xiii.)

It is probable that from this time Pithon had little attachment to the regent, but he made no show of discontent, and rejoined Perdiccas, whom he accompanied on his last expedition to Egypt, b. c. 321. Here, however, the dissatisfaction which soon arose in the arrny [perdiccas] offered a tempting opening to his ambition, and he was the first to put himself at the head of the mutineers, and break out into open insurrection. After the death of Perdiccas the regency was entrusted for a time by the advice of Ptolemy to Pithon and Ar-rhidaeus conjointly, but they soon showed them­selves unworthy of so important a trust, and the-intrigues of Eurydice compelled them to resign their office even before the arrival of Antipater. (Diod. xviii. 36, 39 ; Arrian. ap. Phot. p. 71, a.) In the distribution of the provinces that followed, Pithon retained his former government of Media, with which, however, he seems to have received, either at this time or shortly after, a more general command over the adjoining provinces of Upper Asia. (Arr. /. c. p. 71, b; Diod. xviii. 39, xix. 14 ; Droysen, Hellenism, vol. i. p. 152.) Here his am­bitious and restless spirit soon led him to engage in fresh projects: and he took an opportunity, on what pretext we know not, to dispossess Philip of his satrapy of Parthia, and establish his brother Eudemus in his stead. But this act of aggression at once aroused against him a general confederacy of all the neighbouring satraps, who united their forces, defeated Pithon in a pitched battle, and drove him out of Parthia. Pithon hereupon took refuge with Seleucus at Babylon, who promised to support him, and the two parties were preparing for war, when the approach of Eumenes and Anti­gonus with their respective armies drew off their attention. The confederate satraps immediately spoused the cause of the former, while Pithon and Seleucus not only rejected all the overtures of Eumenes, but endeavoured to excite an insurrec­tion among the troops of that leader. Failing in this, as well as in their attempts to prevent him from crossing the Tigris and effecting a junction with the satraps, they summoned Antigonus in all baste to their assistance, who advanced to Babylon, and there united his forces with those of Seleucus and Pithon in the spring of B. c. 317. (Diod. xix. 12, 14, 15, 17.)

During the following campaigns of Antigonus against Eumenes, Pithon rendered the most im­portant services to the former general, who appears to have reposed the utmost confidence in his mili­tary abilities, and assigned him on all important occasions the second place in the command. Thus we find him commanding the whole left wing of the army of Antigonus in, both the decisive actions ;

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