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1. C. Calpurnius Piso, praetor, b. c. 211.
2. C. Piso, cos. b. c. 180.
3. L. Piso, b.c. 198.
25. M. Piso.
bon seems to have fallen into the same mistake. (Trebell. Pol Gallien, duo, c. 3 ; Aurel. Vict. de Caes. xxxiii., Epit. xxxiii. ; Tillemont, Histoire des EmpereurS) not. vi. ; Zonar. xii. 5.) [W. R.]
PISIAS or PEISIAS (Ileurias), an Athenian sculptor, apparently of the Daedalian period, who made the wooden statue of Zeus Boulaeus, and the statue of Apollo, which stood in the senate house of the Five Hundred at Athens. (Paus. i. 3. § 4. s. 5.) [P. S.]
PISO, the name of the most distinguished family of the plebeian Calpurnia gens. This name, like many other Roman cognomens, is connected with agriculture, the noblest and most honourable pursuit of the ancient Romans: it comes from the verb pisere or pinsere, and refers to the pounding or grinding of corn. Thus the author of the poem addressed to Piso, ascribed by Wernsdorf to Saleius Bassus [bassus], says (16,17):-
" Claraque Pisonis tulerit cognomina prima, Humida callosa cum pinseret hordea dextra."
(Comp. Plin. //. N. xviii. 3.) Many of the Pisones bore this cognomen alone, but others were distinguished by the surnames of Caesoninus and Frugi respectively. The family first rose from obscurity during the second Punic war, and from that time it became one of the most distinguished families in the Roman state. It preserved its celebrity under the empire, and during the first century of the Christian era was second to the imperial family alone. The following stemma contains a list of all the Pisones mentioned in history ? and will serve as an index to the following account. Of most of them it is impossible to ascertain the descent.
COIN REFERRING TO C.PISO, PRAETOR B.C. 211.
1. calpurnius piso, was taken prisoner at the battle of Cannae, b.c. 216, and is said to have been sent with two others to Rome to negotiate the release of the prisoners, which proposition the senate refused to entertain. He was praetor urbanus in b.c. 211, and on the expiration of his year of office was sent as propraetor into Etruria b. c. 210. From thence he was commanded by the dictator, Q. Fulvius Flaccus, to take the command of the army at Capua ; but next year (b. c. 209) the senate again entrusted Etruria to him. (Liv. xxii. 61, xxv. 41, xxvi. 10, 15, 21, 28, xxvii. 6, 7, 21.) Piso in his praetorship proposed to the senate, that the Ludi Apollinares, which had been exhibited for the first time in the preceding year (b.c. 212), should be repeated, and should be celebrated in future annually. The senate passed a decree to this effect. (Liv. xxvi. 23 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 13 ;
5. L. Piso Caesoninus, cos. b. c. 112.
6. L. Piso Caesoninus, mar. Calventia.
7. L. Piso Caesoninus, cos. B. c. 58.
Two sons to whom Horace addressed his De Arte Poctica.
Pisones with the Agnomen Frugi.
9. L. Piso Frugi, the annalist, cos. b. c. 133.
10. L. Piso Frugi, pr. about b. c. 113.
11. L. Piso Frugi, pr. b. c. 74.
Pisones without an Agnomen.
13. Cn. Piso, cos. b. c. 139.
14. Q. Piso, cos. b. c. J35.
15. Piso, pr. about b.c. 135.
16. Piso, about b. c. 104.
17. C. Piso, cos. b. c. 67.
18. M. Pupius Piso, cos. b. c. 61
19. M. Piso, pr. b.c. 44.
20. Cn. Piso, the conspirator, b. c. 66.
21. Cn. Piso, proqu. b. c. 67.
22. Cn. Piso, cos. b. c. 23.
23. Cn. Piso, cos. b. c. 7;
married Plancina, died A. d. 20.
24. L. Piso, cos. a. d. 17.
26. L. Piso, cos. a. d. 57.
27. L. Piso, cos. b. c. 1.
28. L. Piso, accused and died, a. d. 24.
29. L. Piso, pr. a. d. 25.
30. C* Piso, the conspirator against Nero, a. d. 65.
32. Piso, a. d. 175.
B B '2
33. Piso, one of the Thirty Tyrants, A. d. 260.